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May.02.2022

Norgestimate; Ethinyl Estradiol

Indications/Dosage

Labeled

  • acne vulgaris
  • contraception

Products containing 50 mcg estrogen should be used only when medically indicated. Examples of potential medical indications for products containing 50 mcg of estrogen include a history of known contraceptive failure on the 50 mcg products, or increased hepatic metabolism of OCs, such as occurs with some anticonvulsant medications.

Off-Label

  • amenorrhea
  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding
  • endometriosis
  • hirsutism
  • polycystic ovary syndrome
† Off-label indication

For routine contraception

Oral dosage (monophasic product, e.g., Ortho-Cyclen, Estarylla, Femynor, Mono-Linyah, MonoNessa, Previfem or Sprintec)

Adults

1 tablet (containing 0.25 mg of norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol) PO once daily for 21 days, followed by 1 inactive tablet PO once daily for 7 days. Repeat dosage cycles begin on the eighth day after taking the last hormonally active tablet. Administration of most combination oral contraceptives (OCs) begins on the first Sunday after or on which bleeding has started. For the first cycle of a Sunday start regimen, another method of contraception should be used until after the first 7 consecutive days of administration. Some clinicians suggest that administration begin on day 1 of the menstrual cycle to decrease the risk of early ovulation. If administration begins on day 1, spotting and breakthrough bleeding may be more common during the initial dosage cycle.[58441]

Adolescents

1 tablet (containing 0.25 mg of norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol) PO once daily for 21 days, followed by 1 inactive tablet PO once daily for 7 days. Repeat dosage cycles begin on the eighth day after taking the last hormonally active tablet. Administration of most combination oral contraceptives (OCs) begins on the first Sunday after or on which bleeding has started. For the first cycle of a Sunday start regimen, another method of contraception should be used until after the first 7 consecutive days of administration. Some clinicians suggest that administration begin on day 1 of the menstrual cycle to decrease the risk of early ovulation. If administration begins on day 1, spotting and breakthrough bleeding may be more common during the initial dosage cycle.[58441]

Oral dosage (triphasic product containing 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol; e.g., Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Tri-Estarylla, Tri-Linyah, Tri-Previfem, Trinessa, Tri-Sprintec)

Adults

The dosage regimen is 1 tablet PO once daily in the order indicated in the pack for 21 days, followed by 1 inactive tablet PO once daily for 7 days. Phase 1 has 7 tablets containing 0.18 mg of norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Phase 2 has 7 tablets containing 0.215 mg of norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Phase 3 has 7 tablets containing 0.25 mg of norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Repeat dosage cycles begin on the eighth day after taking the last hormonally active tablet. Administration of most combination oral contraceptives (OCs) begins on the first Sunday after or on which bleeding has started. For the first cycle of a Sunday start regimen, another method of contraception should be used until after the first 7 consecutive days of administration. Some clinicians suggest that administration begin on day 1 of the menstrual cycle to decrease the risk of early ovulation. If administration begins on day 1, spotting and breakthrough bleeding may be more common during the initial dosage cycle.[58441]

Adolescents

The dosage regimen is 1 tablet PO once daily in the order indicated in the pack for 21 days, followed by 1 inactive tablet PO once daily for 7 days. Phase 1 has 7 tablets containing 0.18 mg of norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Phase 2 has 7 tablets containing 0.215 mg of norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Phase 3 has 7 tablets containing 0.25 mg of norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Repeat dosage cycles begin on the eighth day after taking the last hormonally active tablet. Administration of most combination oral contraceptives (OCs) begins on the first Sunday after or on which bleeding has started. For the first cycle of a Sunday start regimen, another method of contraception should be used until after the first 7 consecutive days of administration. Some clinicians suggest that administration begin on day 1 of the menstrual cycle to decrease the risk of early ovulation. If administration begins on day 1, spotting and breakthrough bleeding may be more common during the initial dosage cycle.[58441]

Oral dosage (triphasic product containing 25 mcg of ethinyl estradiol, e.g, Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo, Tri-Lo-Estarylla, Tri-Lo Marzia, Trinessa Lo, Tri-Lo-Sprintec)

Adults

The dosage regimen is 1 tablet PO once daily in the order indicated in the pack for 21 days, followed by 1 inactive tablet PO once daily for 7 days. Phase 1 has 7 tablets containing 0.18 mg of norgestimate and 25 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Phase 2 has 7 tablets containing 0.215 mg of norgestimate and 25 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Phase 3 has 7 tablets containing 0.25 mg of norgestimate and 25 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Repeat dosage cycles begin on the eighth day after taking the last hormonally active tablet. Administration of most combination oral contraceptives (OCs) begins on the first Sunday after or on which bleeding has started. For the first cycle of a Sunday start regimen, another method of contraception should be used until after the first 7 consecutive days of administration. Some clinicians suggest that administration begin on day 1 of the menstrual cycle to decrease the risk of early ovulation. If administration begins on day 1, spotting and breakthrough bleeding may be more common during the initial dosage cycle.[43307]

Adolescents

The dosage regimen is 1 tablet PO once daily in the order indicated in the pack for 21 days, followed by 1 inactive tablet PO once daily for 7 days. Phase 1 has 7 tablets containing 0.18 mg of norgestimate and 25 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Phase 2 has 7 tablets containing 0.215 mg of norgestimate and 25 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Phase 3 has 7 tablets containing 0.25 mg of norgestimate and 25 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Repeat dosage cycles begin on the eighth day after taking the last hormonally active tablet. Administration of most combination oral contraceptives (OCs) begins on the first Sunday after or on which bleeding has started. For the first cycle of a Sunday start regimen, another method of contraception should be used until after the first 7 consecutive days of administration. Some clinicians suggest that administration begin on day 1 of the menstrual cycle to decrease the risk of early ovulation. If administration begins on day 1, spotting and breakthrough bleeding may be more common during the initial dosage cycle.[43307]

For the treatment of severe acne vulgaris in females who have no known contraindications to oral contraceptives, desire contraception, and have achieved menarche

Oral dosage (triphasic product containing 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol; e.g., Ortho Tri-Cyclen, Tri-Estarylla, Tri-Linyah, Tri-Previfem, Trinessa, Tri-Sprintec)

Adult and Adolescent females at least 15 years of age

Follow dose as for contraception. Improvement in acne may not be noticeable for 2 to 4 months. Prolonged treatment may be needed to control condition.[58441] A Cochrane's review of available trials indicates that combination oral contraceptives are effective in treating acne; furthermore, differences in effectiveness between several combination oral contraceptive types including monophasic and triphasic formulations are not apparent.[33295]

Oral dosage† (triphasic product containing 25 mcg of ethinyl estradiol, e.g, Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo, Tri-Lo-Estarylla, Tri-Lo Marzia, Trinessa Lo, Tri-Lo-Sprintec)

Adult and Adolescent females

Follow dose as for contraception. Improvement in acne may not be noticeable for 2 to 4 months. Prolonged treatment may be needed to control condition. While these lower dose triphasic products have not been FDA-approved for this use, a Cochrane's review of available trials indicates that combination oral contraceptives are effective in treating acne; furthermore, differences in effectiveness between several combination oral contraceptive types including monophasic and triphasic formulations are not apparent.[33295]

Oral dosage† (monophasic product, e.g., Ortho-Cyclen, Estarylla, Femynor, Mono-Linyah, MonoNessa, Previfem or Sprintec)

Adult and Adolescent females

Follow dose as for contraception. Improvement in acne may not be noticeable for 2 to 4 months. Prolonged treatment may be needed to control condition. While these monophasic products have not been FDA-approved for this use, a Cochrane's review of available trials indicates that combination oral contraceptives are effective in treating acne; furthermore, differences in effectiveness between several combination oral contraceptive types including monophasic and triphasic formulations are not apparent.[33295]

Oral dosage

Adults

0.18 to 0.25 mg norgestimate/0.025 to 0.035 mg ethinyl estradiol PO once daily for 21 days, followed by 7 days of inert, inactive tablets as for routine contraception. Oral contraceptives have limited utility when the underlying cause of the condition is not related to a hypoestrogenic or hyperandrogenic state.[43307] [58441] [58791] [58792] [58793] [67565]

For the treatment of endometriosis† to induce endometrial involution to a 'resting' phase and reduce the size and growth of endometrial tissue in females with no contraindications to hormonal contraceptives, have achieved menarche and who desire contraception

Oral dosage

Adult and Adolescent females

Follow dose as for routine contraception; alternatively, the active tablets can be given continuously.[57749] Combined hormonal contraceptives can reduce endometriosis-associated dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and non-menstrual pelvic pain.[57749] Treatment for 6 to 9 months may be needed to induce endometrial atrophy and reduce symptoms.

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

Maximum Dosage Limits

  • Adults

    Dependent on product used and indication for therapy.

  • Geriatric

    Not indicated.

  • Adolescents

    Dependent on product used and indication for therapy.

  • Children

    Not indicated in prepubescent females.

Patients with Hepatic Impairment Dosing

Hormonal contraceptives are contraindicated for use in the presence of active liver disease or markedly impaired liver function.

Patients with Renal Impairment Dosing

Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

† Off-label indication
Revision Date: 05/02/2022, 01:12:37 PM

References

33295 - Arowojolu AO, Gallo MF, Lopez LM, et al. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;(2):CD004425.43307 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN LO (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2017 Aug.57749 - Dunselman GA, Vermeulen N, Becker C, et al. ESHRE guideline: management of women with endometriosis. Hum Reprod 2014;29:400-12.58441 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN and ORTHO CYCLEN (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2022 April.58791 - American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Committee on Practice Bulletins-Gynecology. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 110: Noncontraceptive uses of Hormonal Contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol 2010;115:206-218. Reaffirmed 2020.58792 - Legro RS, Arslanian SA, Ehrmann DA, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98:4565-92.58793 - Practice bulletin no. 136: management of abnormal uterine bleeding associated with ovulatory dysfunction. Obstet Gynecol 2013 Jul;122:176-85.67565 - American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Committee on Practice Bulletins-Gynecology. Management of Symptomatic Uterine Leiomyomas: ACOG Practice Bulletin, Number 228. Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Jun 1;137(6):e100-e115.

How Supplied

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (17478-0261) (Akorn Inc) (off market)

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg/0.18mg-0.035mg Tablet (68180-0838) (Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg/0.18mg-0.035mg Tablet (00378-7293) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) null

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Ortho Tri-Cyclen 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (50458-0191) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Ortho Tri-Cyclen 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Ortho Tri-Cyclen 28-Day Tablet (00062-1903) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Ortho Tri-Cyclen 28-Day Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Ortho Tri-Cyclen 28-Day Tablet (00062-1910) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Ortho Tri-Cyclen 28-Day Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (50458-0251) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc) (off market)Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo 28-Day Tablet (00062-1251) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo 28-Day Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Estarylla 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00781-4060) (Sandoz Inc. a Novartis Company) (off market)Tri-Estarylla 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Lo-Estarylla 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (00781-4062) (Perrigo Pharmaceuticals Company) (off market)

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Lo-Mili 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (65862-0778) (Aurobindo Pharma USA Inc.) null

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Lo-Sprintec 28-Day Tablet (00555-9065) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)Tri-Lo-Sprintec 28-Day Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Trinessa 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (52544-0248) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)Trinessa 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Trinessa 28-Day Tablet (52544-0935) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)Trinessa 28-Day Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Trinessa Lo 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (52544-0087) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Previfem 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00254-2030) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Previfem 28-Day Tablet (00093-5315) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)Tri-Previfem 28-Day Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Previfem 28-Day Tablet (00603-7665) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Previfem 28-Day Tablet (00093-5315) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)Tri-Previfem 28-Day Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Sprintec 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.18mg-0.035mg Tablet (00555-9018) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)Tri-Sprintec 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.18mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (42291-0590) (AvKARE, Inc.) null

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (68462-0565) (Glenmark Pharmaceuticals) nullNorgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (42291-0565) (AvKARE, Inc.) null

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri- VyLibra Lo 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (50102-0231) (Afaxys, Inc. ) nullTri- VyLibra Lo 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Estarylla 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00781-4060) (Perrigo Pharmaceuticals Company) (off market)Tri-Estarylla 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Estarylla 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (70700-0121) (Xiromed LLC a Division of the Chemo Group) null

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

TRI-LINYAH 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (16714-0363) (NorthStar Rx LLC) nullTRI-LINYAH 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Lo-Estarylla 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (00781-4062) (Sandoz Inc. a Novartis Company) (off market)Tri-Lo-Estarylla 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Mili 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (65862-0777) (Aurobindo Pharma USA Inc.) null

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Nymyo 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (51862-0646) (Mayne Pharma) null

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-VyLibra 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (50102-0233) (Afaxys, Inc. ) nullTri-VyLibra 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (00378-7277) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) nullNorgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg/0.18mg-0.035mg Tablet (68180-0838) (Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) null

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (68462-0719) (Glenmark Pharmaceuticals) (off market)Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 28-Day 0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Ortho Tri-Cyclen 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (50458-0191) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc) (off market)

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (50458-0251) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Lo-Estarylla 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (70700-0120) (Xiromed LLC a Division of the Chemo Group) nullTri-Lo-Estarylla 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Lo-Marzia 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (68180-0837) (Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) nullTri-Lo-Marzia 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Lo-Sprintec 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet (00093-2140) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) nullTri-Lo-Sprintec 28-Day 0.215mg-0.025mg/0.25mg-0.025mg/0.18mg-0.025mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Previfem 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00603-7663) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)Tri-Previfem 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri-Sprintec 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.18mg-0.035mg Tablet (00555-9018) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) nullTri-Sprintec 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.18mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Ethinyl Estradiol, Norgestimate Oral tablet, Inert Oral tablet

Tri Femynor 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (69238-1607) (Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC) (off market)Tri Femynor 28-Day 0.18mg-0.035mg/0.215mg-0.035mg/0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Estarylla 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00781-4058) (Perrigo Pharmaceuticals Company) (off market)Estarylla 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Estarylla 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00781-4058) (Sandoz Inc. a Novartis Company) (off market)

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

MONO-LINYAH 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (16714-0360) (NorthStar Rx LLC) nullMONO-LINYAH 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

MonoNessa 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (52544-0247) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)MonoNessa 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

MonoNessa 28-Day Tablet (52544-0526) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)MonoNessa 28-Day Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 0.25mg-0.035mg 28-Day Tablet (17478-0260) (Akorn Inc) (off market)

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 0.25mg-0.035mg 28-Day Tablet (42291-0553) (AvKARE, Inc.) null

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 0.25mg-0.035mg 28-Day Tablet (68462-0309) (Glenmark Pharmaceuticals) nullNorgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 0.25mg-0.035mg 28-Day Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 0.25mg-0.035mg 28-Day Tablet (68180-0840) (Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) null

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Nymyo 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (51862-0645) (Mayne Pharma) nullNymyo 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Ortho-Cyclen 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (50458-0197) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc) (off market)

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Ortho-Cyclen 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (50458-0197) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Ortho-Cyclen 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Ortho-Cyclen 28-Day Tablet (00062-1901) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Ortho-Cyclen 28-Day Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Ortho-Cyclen 28-Day Tablet (00062-1907) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Ortho-Cyclen 28-Day Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Previfem 28-Day Tablet (00093-5316) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Previfem 28-Day Tablet (00603-7640) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Previfem 28-Day Tablet (00093-5316) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Sprintec 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00555-9016) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) nullSprintec 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Estarylla 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (70700-0119) (Xiromed LLC a Division of the Chemo Group) nullEstarylla 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Femynor 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (69238-1551) (Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC) (off market)Femynor 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Mili 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (65862-0776) (Aurobindo Pharma USA Inc.) null

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol 0.25mg-0.035mg 28-Day Tablet (00378-7286) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) null

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Previfem 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00603-7642) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) nullPrevifem 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

Previfem 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (00254-2029) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)Previfem 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Inert Oral tablet, Norgestimate, Ethinyl Estradiol Oral tablet

VyLibra 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet (50102-0235) (Afaxys, Inc. ) nullVyLibra 28-Day 0.25mg-0.035mg Tablet package photo

Description/Classification

Description

Norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol are used together as a combined oral contraceptive (COC). Norgestimate is a third-generation progestin with lowered androgenic effects and relatively no estrogenic action compared to older progestins. Thus, norgestimate may have positive influences on acne, fluid retention, and lipid profiles. Ethinyl estradiol is a potent, synthetic estrogen. COCs can be used in female patients from menarche to over the age of 40 years up until the time of menopause with proper selection of products. The choice of a routine hormonal contraceptive for any given patient is based on the individual's contraceptive needs, underlying medical conditions or risk factors for adverse effects, and individual preferences for use. All COCs have risks related to venous and arterial thromboembolism, particularly in women who smoke; all combined hormonal contraceptive labels contain a boxed warning about tobacco smoking. The Centers for Disease Control's U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria describe considerations for risk vs. benefits, including medical conditions or attributes that contraindicate use; these criteria can help prescribing practitioners in product selection for individual patients.[48201] Norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol contraceptive products were first approved by the FDA in 1989. Some products are additionally approved for the treatment of acne in premenopausal women.[58441] Some formulations offer a mid-level dosage of estrogen (i.e., 25 mcg/tablet) that may lessen the incidence of estrogen-related side effects such as nausea without causing an increased incidence of breakthrough bleeding associated with some low-estrogen oral contraceptives.[43307]

Classifications

  • Genito-urinary System and Sex Hormones
    • Sex Hormones and Modulators of the Genital System
      • Hormonal Contraceptives
        • Monophasic or Fixed Dose Contraceptives
          • Monophasic Contraceptives
        • Multi-phasic or Sequnential Contraceptives
          • Triphasic Contraceptives
Revision Date: 06/24/2021, 10:36:58 AM

References

43307 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN LO (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2017 Aug.48201 - US Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65:1-103.58441 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN and ORTHO CYCLEN (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2022 April.

Administration Information

General Administration Information

Products vary in the type and amount of estrogen and/or progestin; formulations of different hormonal content are not interchangeable.

  • For storage information, see the specific product information within the How Supplied section.
  • Patients should be instructed to review the patient information leaflet that accompanies the norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol prescription each time it is filled.

Hazardous Drugs Classification

  • NIOSH 2016 List: Group 2 [63664]
  • NIOSH (Draft) 2020 List: Table 1
  • Observe and exercise appropriate precautions for handling, preparation, administration, and disposal of hazardous drugs.
  • Use gloves to handle. Cutting, crushing, or otherwise manipulating tablets/capsules will increase exposure and require additional protective equipment. Eye/face and respiratory protection may be needed during preparation and administration.[63664] [67506] [67507]

Route-Specific Administration

Oral Administration

  • To minimize nausea, administer norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol with or after the evening meal or at bedtime. Take at the same time each day to ensure maximum contraceptive efficacy.
  • For biphasic and triphasic products, explanation of tablet sequencing and different tablet colors may be needed.
  • Some contraceptive packs contain 28 tablets. For most of these, 21 tablets contain active hormone and 7 contain either iron or inert ingredients, so that the daily dosage cycle can be continuous. This reduces the chance of missed doses. The 7 inert or iron tablets are taken at the end of the cycle.
  • Lybrel, a continuous low-dose oral contraceptive, contains 28 tablets of active hormones. Active tablets are taken every day; Lybrel was designed to eliminate withdrawal bleeding.
  • Seasonale, consists of 3 trays containing a total of 91 tablets. For this product, 84 tablets contain active hormone and 7 contain inert ingredients. Seasonique, consists of 91 total tablets with 84 tablets containing progestin and estrogen and 7 tablets containing estrogen only. When taken as indicated, both Seasonale and Seasonique reduce the number of withdrawal bleeds to 4 per year.
 
Administration instructions for patients:
  • Instruct patient on risks and warnings associated with hormonal contraceptives.
  • Missing norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol pills can cause spotting or light bleeding.
  • The length of time required for using a second method of contraception after drug initiation is slightly different for each manufacturer. In general, a second, non-hormonal form of contraception should be used until active norethindrone; ethinyl estradiol tablets have been taken for at least 7 consecutive days.
  • Each manufacturer has slightly different recommendations for missed pills. Patients should be instructed to review the patient information leaflet that accompanies the prescription each time it is filled.
 
General recommendations for missed doses:
  • If one dose is missed, the patient should take it as soon as she remembers and then take the next pill at the regular time as usual. It may be necessary to take 2 tablets in one day. Some manufacturers recommend that a second method of non-hormonal contraception be used for at least 7 days after restarting the pills.
  • If two doses in a row are missed, 2 tablets should be taken on both the day the missed doses are remembered and the following day. The regular schedule should then be continued. A second method of non-hormonal contraception should be used for at least 7 days after restarting the pills.
  • If 3 or more doses in a row are missed, the patient should not take the missed pills. Recommendations for restarting the pills can be found in the patient information leaflet that accompanies the prescription each time it is filled. A second method of contraception should be used for at least 7 days after the pills are restarted.

Clinical Pharmaceutics Information

From Trissel's 2‚Ñ¢ Clinical Pharmaceutics Database
    Revision Date: 04/28/2022, 12:52:03 PM

    References

    63664 - CDC National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings 2016. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2016-161, September 2016. Available on the World Wide Web at https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2016-161/pdfs/2016-161.pdf?id=10.26616/NIOSHPUB201616167506 - American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ASHP guidelines on handling hazardous drugs. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2018; 75:1996-2031.67507 - NIOSH [2016]. NIOSH Alert: Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastics and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-161.

    Adverse Reactions

    Mild

    • abdominal pain
    • acne vulgaris
    • alopecia
    • amenorrhea
    • anorexia
    • anxiety
    • appetite stimulation
    • arthralgia
    • asthenia
    • back pain
    • breakthrough bleeding
    • breast discharge
    • breast enlargement
    • diarrhea
    • diplopia
    • dysmenorrhea
    • dyspepsia
    • emotional lability
    • fatigue
    • gingivitis
    • headache
    • hirsutism
    • irritability
    • leukorrhea
    • libido decrease
    • libido increase
    • maculopapular rash
    • mastalgia
    • melasma
    • menorrhagia
    • menstrual irregularity
    • musculoskeletal pain
    • myalgia
    • nausea
    • pelvic pain
    • photosensitivity
    • pruritus
    • rash
    • rhinitis
    • sinusitis
    • urticaria
    • vaginal discharge
    • vaginal irritation
    • vomiting
    • weight gain
    • weight loss

    Moderate

    • candidiasis
    • cataracts
    • cervical dysplasia
    • cholelithiasis
    • cholestasis
    • colitis
    • cystitis
    • depression
    • edema
    • elevated hepatic enzymes
    • fluid retention
    • galactorrhea
    • hepatitis
    • hyperlipidemia
    • hypertension
    • hypertriglyceridemia
    • jaundice
    • lactation suppression
    • migraine
    • peliosis hepatis
    • vaginitis

    Severe

    • anaphylactoid reactions
    • angioedema
    • bowel ischemia
    • cholecystitis
    • erythema multiforme
    • erythema nodosum
    • hemolytic-uremic syndrome
    • hepatoma
    • intracranial bleeding
    • lupus-like symptoms
    • myocardial infarction
    • new primary malignancy
    • optic neuritis
    • pancreatitis
    • papilledema
    • porphyria
    • pulmonary embolism
    • retinal thrombosis
    • stroke
    • thromboembolism
    • thrombosis
    • visual impairment

    Dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and pelvic pain may occur with oral contraceptive use. Breakthrough bleeding and spotting sometimes occur, especially during the first 3 months of oral contraceptive use such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol. Change in menstrual flow (menstrual irregularity) and amenorrhea have also been reported and are believed to be drug-related. In the event of breakthrough vaginal bleeding, consider non-hormonal causes and take adequate diagnostic measures to rule out malignancy or pregnancy. If pathology has been excluded, time or a change to another formulation may solve the problem. In the event of amenorrhea, rule out pregnancy. Some women may encounter post-pill amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea, especially when such a condition was pre-existent. Women receiving oral contraceptives have reported temporary infertility after discontinuation of treatment; causal association has been neither confirmed nor refuted. When traditional regimens of oral contraception are discontinued, ovulation usually returns within three menstrual cycles but can take up to 6 months. Pituitary function and ovarian functions recover more quickly than endometrial activity, which can take up to 3 months to regain normal histology.[43307] [58441]

    Breast tenderness or mastalgia, breast enlargement, and breast discharge or secretion have been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol and are believed to be drug-related.[43307] Galactorrhea and lactation suppression may also occur.

    Vaginal discharge, including leukorrhea, or vaginal irritation due to candidiasis or vaginitis can occur during therapy with hormonal contraceptive agents like norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol.[43307]

    Oral contraceptive use (e.g., norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol) has been associated with various thromboembolic disorders. The risk for the development of deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism is approximately 3 to 6 times greater in OC users than in nonusers. In several studies, the risk was reported to be higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers. The relative risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in women who have predisposing conditions is twice that of women without such medical conditions. The risk of VTE gradually disappears after the combined hormonal contraceptive is discontinued. VTE risk is highest in the first year of use and when a combination oral contraceptive is started or re-started after a break in use of four weeks or more.[41608] Both hormone amount and hormone type may be important factors regarding rates of thromboembolic disorders. Estrogens decrease levels of antithrombin-III and increase the production of blood clotting factors VII, VIII, IX and X; risks increase with ethinyl estradiol doses more than 50 mcg/day. Women who took OCs containing certain types of progestin (e.g., desogestrel or gestodene) had an increased risk (adjusted RR = 1.9) for nonfatal VTE compared with women who took OCs containing levonorgestrel.[24588] However, association of increases in VTE risk with newer progestins cannot be proved due to limitations and inconsistencies in the results of several of these observational studies. No consistent differential effects on hemostasis with the newer progestins (e.g., desogestrel, gestodene) have been established versus older progestins. In addition, there is evidence of an association between the occurrence of mesenteric thrombosis and the use of oral contraceptives.[43307]

    Oral contraceptives may cause edema (fluid retention) and, thus, weight gain. Appetite stimulation may also occur. An increased risk of hypertension and of myocardial infarction has been associated with the use of oral contraceptives such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol. An increase in blood pressure is more likely in older oral contraceptive users and with continued use. The incidence of hypertension increases with increasing concentrations of progestogens. Close monitoring of blood pressures is recommended for patients at risk for hypertension; discontinue norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol if significant elevation of blood pressure occurs. Blood pressures usually return to normal after discontinuation of therapy, and no difference in the occurrence of hypertension exists among ever- and never-users. Myocardial infarction risk is primarily in smokers or women with other underlying risk factors for coronary artery disease such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, morbid obesity, and diabetes. Oral contraceptives may compound the effects of well-known risk factors. In particular, some progestogens are known to decrease HDL cholesterol and cause glucose intolerance, while estrogens may create a state of hyperinsulinism. The relative risk of heart attack for current oral contraceptive users has been estimated to be 2 to 6.2. The risk is very low under the age of 30. However, there is the possibility of a risk of cardiovascular disease even in very young women who take oral contraceptives. Smoking in combination with oral contraceptive use has been shown to contribute substantially to the incidence of myocardial infarctions in women in their mid-thirties or older, with smoking accounting for the majority of excess cases. Mortality rates associated with circulatory disease have been shown to increase substantially in smokers over the age of 35 and non-smokers over the age of 40 among women who use oral contraceptives.[43307] [25200] [25201] [33475]

    An increase in both the relative and attributable risks of cerebrovascular events (thrombotic and hemorrhagic strokes) has been shown in users of oral contraceptives. In general, the risk is greatest among older (35 years or older), hypertensive women who also smoke. Hypertension was found to be a risk factor for both users and non-users for both types of strokes while smoking interacted to increase the risk for hemorrhagic strokes. In a large study, the relative risk of thrombotic strokes has been shown to range from 3 for normotensive users to 14 for users with severe hypertension. The relative risk of hemorrhagic stroke (intracranial bleeding) is reported to be 1.2 for non-smokers who used oral contraceptives, 2.6 for smokers who did not use oral contraceptives, 7.6 for smokers who used oral contraceptives, 1.8 for normotensive users, and 25.7 for users with severe hypertension. The attributable risk also is greater in women in their mid-thirties or older and among smokers.[43307] Regarding stroke and OC use, risk may be related to the amount of estrogen as well as the type of progestin, although this issue is controversial. Early epidemiological studies showed an increased risk for stroke, as well as MI and venous thromboembolism, however these studies assessed OCs containing more than 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Use of OCs containing lower amounts of estrogen (i.e., 35 mcg or less ethinyl estradiol) has not been associated with an overall increased risk of stroke in more recent studies. Conflicting data exist, however, regarding the association of OC use and hemorrhagic stroke. In one study, norgestrel-type progestins (e.g., levonorgestrel) were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (odds ratio = 3.28) compared with non-users of OCs.[24948] Another study, however, showed no increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in users of levonorgestrel-containing OCs.[24949] Therefore, although the risk of stroke in users of OCs appears to be related to estrogen amount (i.e., increased risk has been demonstrated with products containing 50 mcg or more but not for products containing 35 mcg or less of ethinyl estradiol), further studies are needed to clarify the relationship of type of progestin to risk of stroke in users of OCs.

    Clinical case reports of retinal thrombosis associated with the use of oral contraceptives exist. Optic neuritis, which may lead to partial or complete loss of vision, has been reported in users of oral contraceptives, however the association has been neither confirmed nor refuted. Likewise, cataracts have been reported during oral contraceptive use without evidence of causality.[44124] Exogenous estrogen use can cause a conical cornea to develop from steepening or increased curvature of the cornea, caused by thinning of the stroma. Patients with contact lenses may develop intolerance to their lenses. Any change in vision or visual acuity should be examined by an ophthalmologist. In the event of unexplained visual impairment, onset of proptosis or diplopia, papilledema, or retinal vascular lesions, discontinue norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol. Immediately take appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic measures.[43307]

    Depression has been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol and is believed to be drug-related. Nervousness or anxiety, emotional lability, fatigue, asthenia, irritability, libido increase, and libido decrease have also been reported. Carefully observe women with a history of depression. Discontinue norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol if depression recurs to a serious degree.[43307]

    Headache is a common adverse effect of oral contraceptives. Migraine has been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol and is believed to be drug-related. A number of changes can occur when a woman initiates oral contraceptive therapy and include 1) migraines can appear for the first time, 2) a change in frequency, severity and duration of migraine headaches may be seen, or 3) an improvement or decrease in the occurrence of migraine headaches. When initiating therapy, observe an individual's migraine pattern. The onset or exacerbation of migraine or development of headache with a new pattern that is recurrent, persistent, or severe requires discontinuation of oral contraceptives and evaluation of the cause.[43307]

    Maculopapular rash, rash (unspecified), pruritus, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, urticaria, angioedema, and melasma are believed to be related to oral contraceptives like norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol. Melasma, in the form of tan or brown patches, may develop on the forehead, cheeks, temples and upper lip. These patches may persist after the drug is discontinued. Photosensitivity can be experienced with oral contraceptive use and protective clothing and sunscreens should be employed when exposed to sunlight or UV light. An association of oral contraceptives with acne vulgaris, hirsutism, alopecia, erythema multiforme, or erythema nodosum has been neither confirmed nor refuted. Although oral contraceptives can be used to treat acne vulgaris, in some cases, they may induce or aggravate an existing acne vulgaris.[43307]

    Some women taking oral contraceptives, like norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol, notice tenderness, swelling, or minor bleeding of their gums, which may lead to gingivitis. Proper attention to oral care and regular dental visits are recommended.

    Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or cramps, bloating, and cholestatic jaundice have been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives and are believed to be drug-related. Abdominal pain can indicate cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cholestasis, pancreatitis, or peliosis hepatis. An increased risk of gallbladder disease is associated with oral contraceptive use, but the risk may be minimal, especially with the use of oral contraceptive formulations that contain lower hormonal doses of estrogens and progestogens. In patients with familial defects of lipoprotein metabolism receiving estrogen-containing preparations, significant elevations of plasma triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia) leading to pancreatitis have been reported. Numerous cases of bowel ischemia (ischemic colitis) have been reported during combined estrogen and progesterone use; mesenteric vein thrombus due to hypercoagulability is the proposed mechanism.[57614] Other adverse effects may include colitis, elevated hepatic enzymes, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diarrhea, dyspepsia, anorexia, weight loss, and Budd-Chiari syndrome or hepatic vein obstruction. Peliosis hepatis, a very rare consequence of taking estrogens and combined oral contraceptives, is characterized by the presence of blood-filled spaces.[51257] In rare cases, oral contraceptives can cause benign but dangerous liver tumors. Indirect calculations have estimated the attributable risk of hepatoma to be in the range of 3.3 cases per 100,000 for users, a risk that increases after 4 or more years of use. These benign liver tumors can rupture and cause fatal internal bleeding.[43307] Discontinue norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol if jaundice develops, as steroid hormones may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function. Cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy or jaundice with prior pill use are contraindications for norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol use.

    The issue of hormonal influences on the development of cancers (new primary malignancy) has been widely researched for many decades. Most studies have been performed with combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and the risks related to combined hormonal contraceptives, regardless of route of administration, are thought to be similar. In general, the data suggest an increased risk of cervical cancer among COC users, with a decreased risk for endometrial and ovarian cancers. BREAST CANCER: Epidemiology studies have not found a consistent association between use of COCs and breast cancer risk. Studies do not show an association between ever (current or past) use of COCs and risk of breast cancer. However, some studies report a small increase in the risk of breast cancer among current or recent users (less than 6 months since last use) and current users with longer duration of COC use.[62904] [43307] [58441] Several large, well-designed observational studies have provided data regarding the risk of breast cancer with COC use.[27233] [24750] [27234] Breast cancers diagnosed in current or previous COC users tend to be less advanced clinically than in never-users. The risk of breast cancer is only slightly increased in current and recent COC users (i.e., within 10 years); however, 10 years after COC cessation, the risk of breast cancer appears to be similar to that in those patients that have never used COCs.[62647] From one large study published in 2017, the risk of breast cancer was higher among women who currently or recently used contemporary hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used hormonal contraceptives, and this risk increased with longer durations of use; however, absolute increases in risk were small. The absolute risk of breast cancer associated with any hormonal contraceptive use was 13 per 100,000 women-years, which corresponds to 1 extra case of breast cancer for every 7,690 COC users in 1 year.[62904] Moreover, the same study data suggest that any increased risk of breast cancer usually disappears rapidly after an interruption in the use of COCs.[62904] There continues to be controversy regarding the risk of COC use in women with a family history of breast cancer (e.g., BRCA mutations). However, evidence does not suggest that the increased risk for breast cancer among women with either a family history of breast cancer or breast cancer susceptibility genes is modified by the use of COCs.[48201] Patients should be instructed to perform monthly self-breast examination and report any breast changes, lumps, or discharge to their health care professional. If breast cancer is suspected in a woman who is taking hormonal contraceptives, the contraceptive should be discontinued.[43307] [58441] CERVICAL CANCER: Some studies suggest that COC use has been associated with an increase in the risk of cervical cancer or intraepithelial neoplasia; however, such findings may be due to differences in sexual behavior, presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) and other factors. HPV is thought to be the cause of more than 90% of all cervical cancers, although, hormonal factors may influence risk. The relative risk of invasive cervical cancer of 1.37 after 4 years of use; relative risk increased to 1.6 after 8 years of use. Because a potential for cervical dysplasia may exist, regularly evaluate patients taking COCs via cervical cytology screening as recommended per standards of care.[62647] OTHER CANCERS: A meta-analysis of 10 studies indicated significant trends for a reduced risk for endometrial and ovarian cancer with increased duration of COC use. Risk of endometrial or ovarian cancers may be reduced by up to 60% with 4 or more years of use.[25198] Data suggest COCs do not protect against hereditary forms of ovarian cancer (e.g., women who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene alterations).[25199] Studies have shown an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in long-term (more than 8 years) COC users. However, these cancers are rare in the United States, and the attributable risk (the excess incidence) of liver cancers in oral contraceptive users approaches less than 1 per million users.[62647] [43307] [58441]

    Myalgia, arthralgia, back pain, systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus-like symptoms), and musculoskeletal pain have been noted with oral contraceptives such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol.

    Rhinitis and sinusitis have been noted with oral contraceptives such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol.

    Cystitis has been noted with oral contraceptives such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol.[43307]

    Porphyria has been noted with oral contraceptives such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol.

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome has been reported in users of oral contraceptives; causal association has been neither confirmed nor refuted.[43307] [58441] This may also occur in patients receiving norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol.

    Revision Date: 05/04/2022, 03:11:52 PM

    References

    24588 - Jick H, Jick SS, Gurewich V, et al. Risk of idiopathic cardiovascular death and nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives with differing progestagen components. Lancet 1995;346:1589-93.24750 - Collaborative Group of Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Lancet 1996;347:1713-27.24948 - Schwartz SM, Siscovisk DS, Longstreth WT, et al. Use of low-dose oral contraceptives and stroke in young women. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:596-603.24949 - Petitti DB, Sidney S, Bernstein A, et al. Stroke in users of low-dose oral contraceptives. N Engl J Med 1996;335:8-15.25198 - Schlesselman J. Net effect of oral contraceptive use on the risk of cancer in women in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:793-801.25199 - Modan B, Hartge P, Hirsh-Yechezkel G, et al. Parity, oral contraceptives, and the risk of ovarian cancer among carriers and noncarriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med 2001;345:235-40.25200 - Sidney S, Siscovik DS, Petitti DB, et al. Myocardial infarction and use of low-dose oral contraceptives-a pooled analysis of 2 US studies. Circulation 1998;98:1058-63.25201 - WHO Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception. Acute myocardial infarction and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international multicentre case-control study. Lancet 1997;349:1202-09.27233 - The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Oral Contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1986;315:405-411.27234 - Marchbanks PA, McDonald JA, Wilson HG, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. [Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences (Women's CARE) Study]. N Engl J Med 2002;346:2025-2032.33475 - Rietzschel ER, De Buyzere ML, De Bacquer D, et al. Anticonceptive drug use and pro-atherogenesis: population evidence from ASKLEPIOS. Poster P647 presented at the 2007 European Society of Cardiology Congress. Vienna, Austria; 2007 Sep.41608 - US Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65:1-103.43307 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN LO (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2017 Aug.44124 - Loestrin FE 1/20 and 1.5/30 (norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Lake Wales PA: TEVA Pharmaceuticals; 2023 Jan.48201 - US Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65:1-103.51257 - Radzikowska E, Maciejewski R, Janicki K, et al. The relationship between estrogen and the development of liver vascular disorders. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 2001;56:189-93.57614 - Cappell MS. Colonic toxicity of administered drugs and chemicals. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99:1175-90.58441 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN and ORTHO CYCLEN (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2022 April.62647 - International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. COMBINED ESTROGEN–PROGESTOGEN CONTRACEPTIVES. In: Pharmaceuticals. Lyon, France: a publication of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC);2012;100A:283-311. Available at: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK30433462904 - Morch LS, Skovlund CW, Hannaford PC, et al. Contemporary Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:2228-2239.

    Contraindications/Precautions

    Absolute contraindications are italicized.

    • atrial fibrillation
    • breast cancer
    • cerebrovascular disease
    • cervical cancer
    • coronary artery disease
    • coronary thrombosis
    • diabetes mellitus
    • endometrial cancer
    • hepatic disease
    • hepatocellular cancer
    • history of angioedema
    • jaundice
    • migraine
    • myocardial infarction
    • ovarian cancer
    • pregnancy
    • protein C deficiency
    • protein S deficiency
    • retinal thrombosis
    • stroke
    • thromboembolic disease
    • thromboembolism
    • thrombophlebitis
    • tobacco smoking
    • uterine cancer
    • vaginal bleeding
    • vaginal cancer
    • valvular heart disease
    • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    • breast-feeding
    • cardiac disease
    • children
    • chloasma
    • cholestasis
    • contact lenses
    • corticosteroid therapy
    • depression
    • edema
    • endocarditis
    • gallbladder disease
    • headache
    • hepatitis
    • hereditary angioedema
    • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
    • hypercholesterolemia
    • hyperlipidemia
    • hypertension
    • hypertriglyceridemia
    • hypothyroidism
    • obesity
    • obstetric delivery
    • renal disease
    • sexually transmitted disease
    • surgery
    • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    • visual disturbance

    Use of norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol products, as with other contraceptive steroids, may result in clinical changes that influence the results of certain laboratory tests, such as coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, and binding proteins. Specific laboratory test interference has not been reported.[43307][58441]

    Norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol does not protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or other sexually transmitted disease. Patients with known HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) should be aware that the use of oral hormonal contraceptives will not prevent the transmission of HIV or other diseases to their partner(s).[43307] [58441]

    Combined hormonal contraceptives (COCs), such as norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol, are contraindicated in patients with a current or past history of stroke, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, coronary thrombosis, myocardial infarction, thrombophlebitis, thromboembolism or thromboembolic disease, or valvular heart disease with complications. Hormonal COCs have been associated with thromboembolism such as deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). COCs are also contraindicated in women who have thrombogenic valvular or thrombogenic rhythm diseases of the heart (e.g., subacute bacterial endocarditis with valvular disease, or atrial fibrillation), or known inherited or acquired hypercoagulopathies (e.g., protein S deficiency, protein C deficiency, Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation, antithrombin deficiency, antiphospholipid antibodies). Because tobacco smoking increases the risk of thromboembolism, DVT, myocardial infarction, stroke and other thromboembolic disease, patients receiving COCs are strongly advised not to smoke. Risk is especially high for female smokers more than 35 years of age or those who smoke 15 or more cigarettes per day. Therefore, COCs are generally considered contraindicated in women over the age of 35 years who are tobacco smokers. A positive relationship between estrogen dosage and thromboembolic disease has been demonstrated, and oral products containing 50-mcg ethinyl estradiol should not be used unless medically indicated. In addition, certain progestins may increase thromboembolic risk. The overall risk of venous thromboembolism in women using COCs has been estimated to be 3 to 9 per 10,000 woman-years. Preliminary data from a large, prospective cohort safety study suggests that the risk is greatest during the first 6 months after initially starting COC therapy or restarting (following a break from therapy 4 weeks or more) with the same or different combination product. The risk of arterial thromboses, such as stroke and myocardial infarction, is especially increased in women with other risk factors for these events. Pre-existing high blood pressure, kidney disease, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, diabetes with vascular disease, or patients who are morbidly obese may also increase risk. After a COC is discontinued, the increased risk of thromboembolic disease gradually disappears. Because of their association with elevations in blood pressure, COCs should be used cautiously in patients with mild to moderate hypertension or kidney disease; use is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled or severe hypertension or hypertension with vascular disease. An increase in blood pressure has been reported in women taking COCs, and this increase is more likely in older women and with extended duration of use. The incidence of hypertension increases with increasing concentration of progestin. Blood pressure should be monitored closely in individuals with high blood pressure; discontinue norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol if blood pressure rises significantly. COCs may also cause fluid retention, and patients predisposed to complications from edema, such as those with cardiac disease or renal disease, should be closely monitored.[43307] [58441] [48201]

    Surgery can increase the risk for thromboembolism from combined hormonal contraceptives. If feasible, discontinue norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol products at least 4 weeks before and through 2 weeks after major surgery or other surgeries known to have an elevated risk of thromboembolism, and during and following any prolonged immobilization.[43307] [58441]

    Because of the increased potential for embolic risk, combined oral contraceptives (COCs) containing norgesimate; ethinyl estradiol are contraindicated in women who currently have diabetes mellitus and are over 35 years of age, diabetes mellitus with hypertension or with vascular disease or end-organ damage, or diabetes mellitus of greater than 20 years duration. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be observed for changes in glucose tolerance when initiating or discontinuing estrogen therapy, since estrogen therapy may exacerbate diabetes. Altered glucose tolerance secondary to decreased insulin sensitivity has been reported.[43307] [58441]

    Women who are being treated for dyslipidemia should be followed closely if they elect to use combined oral contraceptives (COCs). Some progestogens may elevate LDL levels and may render the control of hyperlipidemia more difficult. Females with hypertriglyceridemia, or a family history thereof, may be at an increased risk of pancreatitis when using COCs.[43307] [58441]

    Norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol is contraindicated in patients with migraine or other headache that is accompanied by focal neurological symptoms, such as aura, or women over age 35 with any migraine headaches. COCs may cause an exacerbation of migraine or a change in headache patterns and should be used with caution in women with migraine. Patients who complain of migraine with focal neurologic visual changes should be medically evaluated, and in some patients, such changes may indicate cerebrovascular events.[43307] [58441]

    Consistent with potential thrombotic effects of combined oral hormonal contraceptives (COCs), there have been clinical case reports of retinal thrombosis with COC use. The COC should be discontinued if there is unexplained visual disturbance, partial or complete loss of vision, onset of proptosis or diplopia, papilledema, or retinal vascular lesions. Appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic measures should be undertaken immediately. Estrogens can increase the curvature of the cornea; patients using contact lenses wearers who develop visual changes or changes in lens tolerance should be assessed by an ophthalmologist.[43307] [58441]

    Norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to any of the product components. Ethinyl estradiol is generally contraindicated in patients who have a history of anaphylaxis or history of angioedema to the drug. Cases of both anaphylactic reactions and angioedema have been reported in patients taking estrogens. Events have developed in minutes and have required emergency medical treatment. Exogenous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioedema, particularly in women with hereditary angioedema, which may be hormonally sensitive.[43307] [58441]

    Given the increased prevalence of hypercoagulable states in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (in particular antiphospholipid antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and the risk factors for thromboembolism, consider risks vs. benefit of COC use in these patients. Avoid COC use in SLE patients with a history of venous or arterial thrombosis or the presence of a hypercoagulable state. If COCs are initiated in SLE patients without hypercoagulable states, choose a low-dose estrogen contraceptive (e.g., ethinyl estradiol 35 mcg per day or less); consider use of a progestin-only contraceptive. Combined hormonal oral contraceptive (COC) use has also been reported to induce, unmask, or exacerbate SLE; more data are needed.[31435] [48201]

    Discontinue norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol if pregnancy is detected; there is no reason to continue combined oral hormonal contraceptives (COCs) during pregnancy. Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses have not found an increased risk of genital or nongenital birth defects (including cardiac anomalies and limb-reduction defects) following exposure to COCs before conception or during early pregnancy. For any patient who has missed two consecutive periods, pregnancy should be ruled out. If the patient has not adhered to the prescribed COC schedule, consider the possibility of pregnancy at the first missed period. Discontinue COC use if pregnancy is confirmed.[43307] [58441]

    Manufacturers recommend avoidance of combined hormonal oral contraceptives (COCs) if possible during breast-feeding until a mother has completely weaned her child.[43307] [58441] Small amounts of oral contraceptive steroids (estrogens and progestins) have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers and a few reports of effects on the infant exist, including jaundice and breast enlargement. Experts often recommend avoidance of estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives, in the first 21 days postpartum due to maternal post-partum risks for thromboembolism following obstetric delivery, and the potential for COCs to interfere with the establishment of lactation. It is generally accepted that estrogen-containing combined hormonal contraceptives may be used after this period in healthy women without other risk factors; general monitoring of the infant for effects such as appetite changes, breast changes and proper weight gain and growth should occur.[48201] Estrogens, including ethinyl estradiol (EE), have been reported to interfere with milk production and duration of lactation in some women, particularly at doses of 30 mcg per day or more.[48204] One study found that lower dose oral combined contraceptives (e.g., 10 mcg per day EE) may not affect lactation.[48200] However, a systematic review concluded that the available evidence, even from randomized controlled trials, is limited and of poor quality; proper trials are needed.[48202] Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. Alternate contraceptive agents for consideration for use during breast-feeding include non-hormonal contraceptive methods and also progestin-only contraceptives (e.g., medroxyprogesterone injection).[48201]

    Norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol products are contraindicated in patients with hepatic disease. Because of the association with cholestasis and hepatic neoplasms, estrogens are contraindicated in the presence of hepatocellular cancer, hepatic adenoma, other liver tumors (benign or malignant), or markedly impaired liver function (e.g., uncompensated cirrhosis). Do not use hormonal combined oral contraceptives (COCs) in patients with a history of cholestatic jaundice/pruritus of pregnancy or jaundice from prior hormonal contraceptives; these conditions can recur with subsequent COC use. Discontinue use of norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol if jaundice develops during COC use. Steroid hormones may be poorly metabolized in patients with liver impairment. Acute or chronic disturbances of liver function may necessitate the discontinuation of COC use until markers of liver function return to normal and COC causation has been excluded. Patients with hepatitis C who are being treated with ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, are also contraindicated to receive COCs. During clinical trials with the hepatitis C combination drug regimen that contains ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir, ALT elevations greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), including some cases greater than 20 times the ULN, were significantly more frequent in women using ethinyl estradiol-containing medications. Discontinue COCs prior to starting hepatitis C therapy with the combination drug regimen ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir; COCs can be restarted approximately 2 weeks after completing treatment with the hepatitis C combination drug regimen. Hepatic adenomas are associated with COC use. An estimate of the attributable risk is 3.3 cases per 100,000 COC users. Rupture of hepatic adenomas may cause death through intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Studies have shown an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in long term (more than 8 years) COC users. However, the attributable risk of liver cancers in COC users is less than 1 case per million users. Use COCs with caution in patients with pre-existing gallbladder disease; however, recent studies have shown that the relative risk of developing gallbladder disease among COC users appears minimal due to the use of products that contain lower doses of hormones.[43307] [58441] [48201]

    Mood disorders, like depression, may be aggravated in women taking hormones or combined oral hormonal contraceptives (COCs). Data regarding the association of COCs with onset of depression or exacerbation of existing depression are limited. If significant depression occurs, norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol should be discontinued.[43307] [58441]

    Norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol products are contraindicated in patients with a history of, or known or suspected breast cancer, as breast cancer is a hormonally-sensitive tumor. All women taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) should receive clinical breast examinations and perform monthly self-examinations as recommended by their health care professional based on patient age, known risk factors, and current standards of care. Epidemiology studies have not found a consistent association between use of COCs and breast cancer risk. Studies do not show an association between ever (current or past) use of COCs and risk of breast cancer. However, some studies report a small increase in the risk of breast cancer among current or recent users (less than 6 months since last use) and current users with longer duration of COC use.[62647] [43307] [58441] Several large, well-designed observational studies have provided data regarding the risk of breast cancer with COC use.[27233] [24750] [27234] [62647] From one large study published in 2017, the risk of breast cancer was higher among women who currently or recently used contemporary hormonal contraceptives than among women who had never used hormonal contraceptives, and this risk increased with longer durations of use; however, absolute increases in risk were small. The absolute risk of breast cancer associated with any hormonal contraceptive use was 13 per 100,000 women-years, which corresponds to 1 extra case of breast cancer for every 7,690 COC users in 1 year.[62904] Moreover, the same study data suggest that any increased risk of breast cancer usually disappears rapidly after an interruption in the use of COCs.[62904] There continues to be controversy regarding the risk of COC use in women with a family history of breast cancer (e.g., BRCA mutations). However, evidence does not suggest that the increased risk for breast cancer among women with either a family history of breast cancer or breast cancer susceptibility genes is modified by the use of COCs.[48201] Patients should be instructed to perform monthly self-breast examination and report any breast changes, lumps, or discharge to their health care professional. If breast cancer is suspected in a woman who is taking hormonal contraceptives, the contraceptive should be discontinued.[48201]

    Norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol products are contraindicated in the presence of cervical cancer or other estrogen-responsive tumors. Most cervical cancers are related to the presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV), but hormonal factors influence risk. In women taking hormonal combined oral contraceptives (COCs), studies have found an increased risk of cervical cancer compared with never-users. The risk appears to increase with duration of use and appears to decline when COCs are discontinued. Clinical surveillance of all women using COCs is important; all women receiving COC treatment should have a pelvic examination and other diagnostic or screening tests, such as cervical cytology, as clinically indicated or as generally recommended based on age, risk factors, and other individual needs.[48201] [43307] [58441]

    In those women with known endometrial cancer or other estrogen-dependent tumors (e.g., vaginal cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer), combined hormonal contraceptives are contraindicated, as such tumors are hormonally sensitive. Hormonal contraceptives are contraindicated in women with undiagnosed vaginal bleeding; evaluate such patients before combined hormonal contraceptive use to determine if a contraindication to use exists.[48201] [43307] [58441] The use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) appears to have a protective effect against some cancers. In women using COCs, a meta-analysis of 10 studies indicates a significant trend in decreasing endometrial and ovarian cancer risk with increasing duration of COC use. The beneficial effects of COCs in this regard may persist for 15 years or more after COC use ceases.[25198] [48201] [62647]

    The estrogen component of combined oral hormonal contraceptives may raise the serum concentrations of thyroid-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin. Doses of thyroid hormone replacement for hypothyroidism may need to be increased, as indicated by clinical and laboratory monitoring for the individual. Cortisol replacement therapy (e.g., corticosteroid therapy) may also need adjusted for some patients.[43307] [58441]

    Chloasma may occur with combined oral hormonal contraceptive (COC) use, especially in women with a history of chloasma gravidarum (melasma). Advise females who tend to develop chloasma to avoid exposure to the sun or ultraviolet (UV) exposure while taking norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol.[43307] [58441]

    Preexisting morbid obesity is one factor that may increase cardiovascular or thromboembolic risks associated with combination hormonal contraceptive use. Consider the presence of obesity and other underlying risk factors that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease or thromboembolism, particularly for women over 35 years of age.[43307] [58441] Limited literature suggests that the effectiveness of some hormonal contraceptive formulations might decrease with increasing body mass index (BMI). However, the evidence is conflicting; there are also data to suggest that the efficacy of most combined hormonal contraceptive products (with a few known exceptions) does not seem to be compromised in women who are overweight.[48201] [66895]

    The safety and efficacy of hormonal contraceptive products have only been established in females of reproductive age. Safety and efficacy of hormonal birth control is expected to be the same for postpubertal children under the age of 16 and for users 16 years of age and older. Use of hormonal contraceptive products in female children before menarche is not indicated.[43307] [58441]

    Revision Date: 05/04/2022, 03:09:45 PM

    References

    24750 - Collaborative Group of Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Lancet 1996;347:1713-27.25198 - Schlesselman J. Net effect of oral contraceptive use on the risk of cancer in women in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:793-801.27233 - The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Oral Contraceptive use and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1986;315:405-411.27234 - Marchbanks PA, McDonald JA, Wilson HG, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. [Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences (Women's CARE) Study]. N Engl J Med 2002;346:2025-2032.31435 - Askanase AD. Estrogen therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus. Treat Endocrinol 2004;3:19-26.43307 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN LO (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2017 Aug.48200 - Toddywalla VS , Joshi L, Virkar K. Effect of contraceptive steroids on human lactation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;127:245-249.48201 - US Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65:1-103.48202 - Truitt ST, Fraser AB, Grimes DA, et al. Hormonal contraception during lactation. . Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Contraception. 2003;68:233-238.48204 - Tankeyoon M, Dusitsin N, Chalapati S, et al. Effects of hormonal contraceptives on milk volume and infant growth. WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Task Force on Oral Contraceptives. Contraception. 1984;30:505–522.58441 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN and ORTHO CYCLEN (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2022 April.62647 - International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. COMBINED ESTROGEN–PROGESTOGEN CONTRACEPTIVES. In: Pharmaceuticals. Lyon, France: a publication of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC);2012;100A:283-311. Available at: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK30433462904 - Morch LS, Skovlund CW, Hannaford PC, et al. Contemporary Hormonal Contraception and the Risk of Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:2228-2239.66895 - Simmons KB, Edelman AB. Hormonal contraception and obesity. Fertil Steril. 2016;106:1282-1288. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

    Mechanism of Action

    The primary action of the combination of an estrogen with a progestin is to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary system, decreasing the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Progestins blunt luteinizing hormone (LH) release, and estrogens suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. Both estrogen and progestin ultimately inhibit maturation and release of the dominant ovule. In addition, viscosity of the cervical mucus increases with hormonal contraceptive use, which increases the difficulty of sperm entry into the uterus. Alteration in endometrial tissues also occurs, which reduces the likelihood of implantation of the fertilized ovum. The contraceptive effect is reversible.[58441][43307] When traditional regimens of oral contraception are discontinued, ovulation usually returns within three menstrual cycles but can take up to 6 months in some women. Pituitary function and ovarian functions recover more quickly than endometrial activity, which can take up to 3 months to regain normal histology.

     

    Both estrogens and progestins are responsible for a number of other metabolic changes. The summary of these changes is dependent on the net actions of the estrogen and progestin combinations. At the cellular level, estrogens and progestins diffuse into their target cells and interact with a protein receptor. Metabolic responses to estrogens and progestins require an interaction between DNA and the hormone-receptor complex. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins. Estrogens generally have a favorable effect on blood lipids, reducing LDL and increasing HDL cholesterol concentrations. Serum triglycerides increase with estrogen administration. Folate metabolism and excretion is increased by estrogens and may lead to slight serum folate deficiency. Estrogens also enhance sodium and fluid retention. Progestins are classified according to their progestational, estrogenic, and androgenic properties. Progestins can alter hepatic carbohydrate metabolism, increase insulin resistance, and have either little to slightly favorable effects on serum lipoproteins. Less androgenic progestins, like norgestimate, have only slight effects on carbohydrate metabolism. More androgenic progestins can aggravate acne. Serious adverse events, like thrombosis, are primarily associated with the estrogen component of hormonal contraceptives but may be the result of both estrogen and progestin components. The mechanism for thrombosis may be associated with increased clotting factor production and/or decreases in anti-thrombin III. Minor side effects can be addressed by choosing formulations that take advantage of relative estrogen, progestin, and androgenic potencies.[60767]

    Revision Date: 06/24/2021, 10:41:26 AM

    References

    43307 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN LO (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2017 Aug.58441 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN and ORTHO CYCLEN (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2022 April.60767 - Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006.

    Pharmacokinetics

    Norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol is administered orally. Both hormones are widely distributed. Norgestimate is strongly protein-bound, primarily to albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Ethinyl estradiol is highly but non-specifically protein-bound to albumin. Ethinyl estradiol induces an increase in the serum concentrations of both sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG). Norgestimate is considered a pro-drug and is metabolized by hydrolysis, reduction, and hydroxylation to 17-deacetyl norgestimate, 3-keto-norgestimate and levonorgestrel. It is believed that only 17-deacetyl norgestimate significantly contributes to norgestimate's pharmacologic activity. All three metabolites may subsequently undergo glucuronide and sulfate conjugation. Estrogens are metabolized in the GI mucosa during absorption and in the liver. The major 1st-pass metabolite of ethinyl estradiol is its sulfate conjugate. Ethinyl estradiol is primarily metabolized in the liver via CYP3A4 to 2-hydroxy-ethinyl estradiol. Both ethinyl estradiol and its hydroxylated and methylated metabolites undergo glucuronide and sulfate conjugation. Estrogen conjugates can be hydrolyzed back to the active drug in the GI tract and then undergo entero-hepatic recycling. Excretion of the oral contraceptive steroids as inactive metabolites occurs via the urine and feces. Elimination half-life is approximately 12 to 30 hours for 17-deacetyl norgestimate and 26 hours for ethinyl estradiol at steady state. It is the prolonged biologic effects of the hormones that allows for once-daily administration.

     

    Affected cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)

    • Ethinyl Estradiol: In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that estrogens are partially metabolized by CYP3A4. Interactions with drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4 are possible.[47343][57085] Ethinyl estradiol is a substrate of the drug transporter P-gp.[60859] While ethinyl estradiol is an in vitro inhibitor of CYP2B6, 2C19, and 3A4 and an in vitro substrate of 2C9, clinically significant drug interactions are not expected through these pathways.

    Route-Specific Pharmacokinetics

    Oral Route

    Following oral administration in the third cycle of use, approximately 60% of norgestimate and 83% of ethinyl estradiol survive absorption and first pass through the liver. The maximum concentration of ethinyl estradiol is decreased by 47% when administered with food, but the extent of absorption is not affected. Estrogens are metabolized in the GI mucosa during absorption and in the liver. The major first pass metabolite of ethinyl estradiol is its sulfate conjugate.

    Revision Date: 06/24/2021, 10:47:59 AM

    References

    47343 - Chang SY, Chen C, Yang Z, et al. Further assessment of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol as an inhibitor of different human cytochrome P450 forms in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos 2009;37:1667-75.57085 - Zhang H, Cui D, Wang B, et al. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving 17alpha-ethinylestradiol: a new look at an old drug. Clin Pharmacokinet 2007;46:133-57.60859 - Kim WY, Benet LZ. P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1)-Mediated Efflux of Sex-Steroid Hormones and Modulation of P-gp Expression In Vitro. Pharmaceutical Research 2004;21:1284.

    Pregnancy/Breast-feeding

    pregnancy

    Discontinue norgestimate; ethinyl estradiol if pregnancy is detected; there is no reason to continue combined oral hormonal contraceptives (COCs) during pregnancy. Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses have not found an increased risk of genital or nongenital birth defects (including cardiac anomalies and limb-reduction defects) following exposure to COCs before conception or during early pregnancy. For any patient who has missed two consecutive periods, pregnancy should be ruled out. If the patient has not adhered to the prescribed COC schedule, consider the possibility of pregnancy at the first missed period. Discontinue COC use if pregnancy is confirmed.[43307] [58441]

    breast-feeding, obstetric delivery

    Manufacturers recommend avoidance of combined hormonal oral contraceptives (COCs) if possible during breast-feeding until a mother has completely weaned her child.[43307] [58441] Small amounts of oral contraceptive steroids (estrogens and progestins) have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers and a few reports of effects on the infant exist, including jaundice and breast enlargement. Experts often recommend avoidance of estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives, in the first 21 days postpartum due to maternal post-partum risks for thromboembolism following obstetric delivery, and the potential for COCs to interfere with the establishment of lactation. It is generally accepted that estrogen-containing combined hormonal contraceptives may be used after this period in healthy women without other risk factors; general monitoring of the infant for effects such as appetite changes, breast changes and proper weight gain and growth should occur.[48201] Estrogens, including ethinyl estradiol (EE), have been reported to interfere with milk production and duration of lactation in some women, particularly at doses of 30 mcg per day or more.[48204] One study found that lower dose oral combined contraceptives (e.g., 10 mcg per day EE) may not affect lactation.[48200] However, a systematic review concluded that the available evidence, even from randomized controlled trials, is limited and of poor quality; proper trials are needed.[48202] Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. Alternate contraceptive agents for consideration for use during breast-feeding include non-hormonal contraceptive methods and also progestin-only contraceptives (e.g., medroxyprogesterone injection).[48201]

    Revision Date: 09/03/2021, 03:23:54 PM

    References

    43307 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN LO (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2017 Aug.48200 - Toddywalla VS , Joshi L, Virkar K. Effect of contraceptive steroids on human lactation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;127:245-249.48201 - US Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65:1-103.48202 - Truitt ST, Fraser AB, Grimes DA, et al. Hormonal contraception during lactation. . Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Contraception. 2003;68:233-238.48204 - Tankeyoon M, Dusitsin N, Chalapati S, et al. Effects of hormonal contraceptives on milk volume and infant growth. WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Task Force on Oral Contraceptives. Contraception. 1984;30:505–522.58441 - ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN and ORTHO CYCLEN (norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol) package insert. Raritan NJ: Ortho Women's Health and Urology, Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2022 April.

    Interactions

    Level 1 (Severe)

    • Anastrozole
    • Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
    • Letrozole
    • Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir
    • Ribociclib; Letrozole
    • Testolactone
    • Tranexamic Acid

    Level 2 (Major)

    • Amobarbital
    • Apalutamide
    • Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant
    • Armodafinil
    • Artemether; Lumefantrine
    • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
    • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
    • Atazanavir
    • Atazanavir; Cobicistat
    • Barbiturates
    • Belzutifan
    • Bexarotene
    • Bosentan
    • Butabarbital
    • Butalbital; Acetaminophen
    • Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine
    • Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine
    • Calaspargase pegol
    • Carbamazepine
    • Cenobamate
    • Charcoal
    • Clobazam
    • Cobicistat
    • Cobimetinib
    • Dabrafenib
    • Darunavir
    • Darunavir; Cobicistat
    • Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide
    • Efavirenz
    • Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
    • Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
    • Elagolix
    • Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate
    • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide
    • Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
    • Encorafenib
    • Enzalutamide
    • Eslicarbazepine
    • Etravirine
    • Exemestane
    • Felbamate
    • Fosamprenavir
    • Fosphenytoin
    • Fostemsavir
    • Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir
    • Griseofulvin
    • Hydantoins
    • Indinavir
    • Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin
    • Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin
    • Ivosidenib
    • Lamotrigine
    • Lesinurad
    • Lesinurad; Allopurinol
    • Lomitapide
    • Lopinavir; Ritonavir
    • Lorlatinib
    • Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor
    • Mavacamten
    • Methohexital
    • Metreleptin
    • Mifepristone
    • Mitapivat
    • Mitotane
    • Mobocertinib
    • Modafinil
    • Nelfinavir
    • Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir
    • Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin
    • Ospemifene
    • Oxcarbazepine
    • Pegaspargase
    • Pentobarbital
    • Pexidartinib
    • Phenobarbital
    • Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine
    • Phentermine; Topiramate
    • Phenytoin
    • Pitolisant
    • Pretomanid
    • Primidone
    • Raloxifene
    • Ranolazine
    • Rifabutin
    • Rifampin
    • Rifamycins
    • Rifapentine
    • Ritonavir
    • Romidepsin
    • Rufinamide
    • Saquinavir
    • Secobarbital
    • Sotorasib
    • St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum
    • Sugammadex
    • Tazemetostat
    • Tipranavir
    • Tirzepatide
    • Tizanidine
    • tobacco
    • Topiramate
    • Toremifene
    • Ulipristal
    • Warfarin

    Level 3 (Moderate)

    • Acetaminophen
    • Acetaminophen; Aspirin
    • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
    • Acetaminophen; Aspirin; Diphenhydramine
    • Acetaminophen; Caffeine
    • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
    • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Pyrilamine
    • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine
    • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan
    • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
    • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
    • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
    • Acetaminophen; Codeine
    • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan
    • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine
    • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
    • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
    • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
    • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
    • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
    • Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine
    • Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
    • Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone
    • Acetaminophen; Oxycodone
    • Acetaminophen; Pamabrom; Pyrilamine
    • Acetaminophen; Pentazocine
    • Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine
    • Adagrasib
    • Amikacin
    • Aminoglycosides
    • Amoxicillin
    • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole
    • Amoxicillin; Clavulanic Acid
    • Ampicillin
    • Ampicillin; Sulbactam
    • Azelastine; Fluticasone
    • Azithromycin
    • Aztreonam
    • Bacitracin
    • Beclomethasone
    • Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen
    • Betamethasone
    • Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline
    • Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline
    • Blinatumomab
    • Budesonide
    • Budesonide; Formoterol
    • Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol
    • Carbapenems
    • Cefaclor
    • Cefadroxil
    • Cefazolin
    • Cefdinir
    • Cefditoren
    • Cefepime
    • Cefiderocol
    • Cefixime
    • Cefotaxime
    • Cefotetan
    • Cefoxitin
    • Cefpodoxime
    • Cefprozil
    • Ceftaroline
    • Ceftazidime
    • Ceftazidime; Avibactam
    • Ceftibuten
    • Ceftizoxime
    • Ceftolozane; Tazobactam
    • Ceftriaxone
    • Cefuroxime
    • Cephalexin
    • Ceritinib
    • Chloramphenicol
    • Ciclesonide
    • Ciprofloxacin
    • Clarithromycin
    • Clindamycin
    • Colesevelam
    • Colistimethate, Colistin, Polymyxin E
    • Colistin
    • Corticosteroids
    • Cortisone
    • Cyclosporine
    • Dalbavancin
    • Dantrolene
    • Daptomycin
    • Deferasirox
    • Deflazacort
    • Delafloxacin
    • Demeclocycline
    • Dexamethasone
    • Dicloxacillin
    • Doripenem
    • Doxercalciferol
    • Doxorubicin
    • Doxorubicin Liposomal
    • Doxycycline
    • Dronabinol
    • Dronedarone
    • Eravacycline
    • Ertapenem
    • Erythromycin
    • Exenatide
    • Fidaxomicin
    • Flibanserin
    • Fludrocortisone
    • Flunisolide
    • Fluticasone
    • Fluticasone; Salmeterol
    • Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol
    • Fluticasone; Vilanterol
    • Formoterol; Mometasone
    • Gemifloxacin
    • Gentamicin
    • Glycylcyclines
    • Hemin
    • Hydrocortisone
    • Icosapent ethyl
    • Idelalisib
    • Imipenem; Cilastatin
    • Imipenem; Cilastatin; Relebactam
    • Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide
    • Isavuconazonium
    • Itraconazole
    • Kanamycin
    • Ketoconazole
    • Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin
    • Lefamulin
    • Leflunomide
    • Lenalidomide
    • Levofloxacin
    • Levoketoconazole
    • Lincomycin
    • Lincosamides
    • Linezolid
    • Lixisenatide
    • Lonapegsomatropin
    • Mafenide
    • Meropenem
    • Meropenem; Vaborbactam
    • Methylprednisolone
    • Metronidazole
    • Metyrapone
    • Miltefosine
    • Minocycline
    • Mivacurium
    • Mometasone
    • Morphine
    • Morphine; Naltrexone
    • Moxifloxacin
    • Mycophenolate
    • Nafcillin
    • Neomycin
    • Nevirapine
    • Nitrofurantoin
    • Ofloxacin
    • Olopatadine; Mometasone
    • Omadacycline
    • Oritavancin
    • Oxacillin
    • Paromomycin
    • Pazopanib
    • Penicillin G
    • Penicillin G Benzathine
    • Penicillin G Benzathine; Penicillin G Procaine
    • Penicillin G Procaine
    • Penicillin V
    • Piperacillin
    • Piperacillin; Tazobactam
    • Plazomicin
    • Polymyxin B
    • Posaconazole
    • Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (Dietary Supplements)
    • Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (FDA-approved)
    • Prednisolone
    • Prednisone
    • Ramelteon
    • Ribociclib
    • Riluzole
    • Roflumilast
    • Ropinirole
    • Ruxolitinib
    • Sarilumab
    • Selegiline
    • Siltuximab
    • Sincalide
    • Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir
    • Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir
    • Somatropin, rh-GH
    • Streptogramins
    • Streptomycin
    • Succinylcholine
    • Sulfadiazine
    • Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole
    • Sulfasalazine
    • Sulfonamides
    • Tacrolimus
    • Tedizolid
    • Telavancin
    • Temsirolimus
    • Tenofovir Alafenamide
    • Terbinafine
    • Teriflunomide
    • Tetracycline
    • Thalidomide
    • Theophylline, Aminophylline
    • Tigecycline
    • Tinidazole
    • Tobramycin
    • Tocilizumab
    • Tramadol; Acetaminophen
    • Triamcinolone
    • Trimethoprim
    • Tucatinib
    • Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium
    • Vancomycin
    • Vincristine
    • Vincristine Liposomal
    • Vonoprazan; Amoxicillin
    • Vonoprazan; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin
    • Vorapaxar
    • Voriconazole

    Level 4 (Minor)

    • Acarbose
    • Acetohexamide
    • Aliskiren; Amlodipine
    • Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
    • Alogliptin
    • Alogliptin; Metformin
    • Alogliptin; Pioglitazone
    • Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors
    • Alprazolam
    • Amlodipine
    • Amlodipine; Atorvastatin
    • Amlodipine; Benazepril
    • Amlodipine; Celecoxib
    • Amlodipine; Olmesartan
    • Amlodipine; Valsartan
    • Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
    • Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin C
    • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
    • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
    • Atorvastatin
    • Atorvastatin; Ezetimibe
    • Bromocriptine
    • Cabozantinib
    • Caffeine
    • Caffeine; Sodium Benzoate
    • Calcium
    • Calcium-channel blockers
    • Canagliflozin
    • Canagliflozin; Metformin
    • Chenodiol
    • Chlordiazepoxide
    • Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline
    • Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium
    • Chlorpropamide
    • Clevidipine
    • Clonazepam
    • Clorazepate
    • Cosyntropin
    • Dapagliflozin
    • Dapagliflozin; Metformin
    • Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin
    • Daratumumab; Hyaluronidase
    • Delavirdine
    • Diazepam
    • Diltiazem
    • Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors
    • Doxazosin
    • Empagliflozin
    • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin
    • Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin
    • Empagliflozin; Metformin
    • Enalapril; Felodipine
    • Ergotamine; Caffeine
    • Ertugliflozin
    • Ertugliflozin; Metformin
    • Ertugliflozin; Sitagliptin
    • Estazolam
    • Felodipine
    • Fluconazole
    • Flurazepam
    • Frovatriptan
    • Glimepiride
    • Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone
    • Glipizide
    • Glipizide; Metformin
    • Glyburide
    • Glyburide; Metformin
    • grapefruit juice
    • Green Tea
    • Hyaluronidase
    • Hyaluronidase, Recombinant; Immune Globulin
    • Hydralazine
    • Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
    • Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN
    • Insulins
    • Isradipine
    • Levamlodipine
    • Levothyroxine
    • Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine)
    • Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic)
    • Linagliptin
    • Linagliptin; Metformin
    • Liothyronine
    • Lorazepam
    • Mecamylamine
    • Meglitinides
    • Metformin
    • Metformin; Repaglinide
    • Metformin; Rosiglitazone
    • Metformin; Saxagliptin
    • Metformin; Sitagliptin
    • Miconazole
    • Miconazole; Petrolatum; Zinc Oxide
    • Midazolam
    • Miglitol
    • Mineral Oil
    • Minoxidil
    • Naratriptan
    • Nicardipine
    • Nifedipine
    • Nimodipine
    • Nisoldipine
    • Nitroprusside
    • Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
    • Oxazepam
    • Perindopril; Amlodipine
    • Pertuzumab; Trastuzumab; Hyaluronidase
    • Phenothiazines
    • Phenoxybenzamine
    • Pioglitazone
    • Pioglitazone; Glimepiride
    • Pioglitazone; Metformin
    • Pramlintide
    • Prazosin
    • Quazepam
    • Rasagiline
    • Reserpine
    • Rituximab; Hyaluronidase
    • Rosiglitazone
    • Rosuvastatin
    • Rosuvastatin; Ezetimibe
    • Saxagliptin
    • SGLT2 Inhibitors
    • Simvastatin; Sitagliptin
    • Sitagliptin
    • Sulfonylureas
    • Telmisartan; Amlodipine
    • Temazepam
    • Terazosin
    • Thiazolidinediones
    • Thyroid hormones
    • Tolazamide
    • Tolbutamide
    • Trandolapril; Verapamil
    • Trastuzumab; Hyaluronidase
    • Tricyclic antidepressants
    • Ursodeoxycholic Acid, Ursodiol
    • Verapamil
    • Zolmitriptan
    • Zonisamide
    Acarbose: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Acetaminophen; Aspirin: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Aspirin; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Codeine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Doxylamine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Diphenhydramine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Hydrocodone: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Pamabrom; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Pentazocine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Acetohexamide: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Adagrasib: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of adagrasib with progestins is necessary, as the systemic exposure of progestins may be increased resulting in an increase in treatment-related adverse reactions. Progestins are metabolized primarily by hydroxylation via a CYP3A; adagrasib is a strong CYP3A inhibitor. [63694] [68325] Aliskiren; Amlodipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Aliskiren; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Alogliptin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] Alogliptin; Metformin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] Alogliptin; Pioglitazone: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [4995] Alprazolam: (Minor) Oral contraceptives can increase the effects of alprazolam because oral contraceptives inhibit oxidative metabolism, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation. Patients receiving oral contraceptive therapy should be observed for evidence of increased response to alprazolam. [4760] [7486] Amikacin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Aminoglycosides: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Amlodipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. [5460] (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Amobarbital: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Amoxicillin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. In addition, drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Consider monitoring serum potassium concentrations during the first month of dosing in high-risk patients who take strong CYP3A4 inhibitors long-term and concomitantly. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors include clarithromycin. [28238] [28482] [28509] [31698] [34329] Amoxicillin; Clavulanic Acid: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ampicillin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ampicillin; Sulbactam: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Anastrozole: (Contraindicated) Estrogen therapy is not recommended during aromatase inhibitor treatment, due to opposing pharmacologic actions. Estrogens, including those found in hormonal contraceptives, could interfere competitively with the pharmacologic action of the aromatase inhibitors such as Anastrozole. The goal of aromatase inhibitor therapy is to decrease circulating estrogen concentrations and inhibit the growth of hormonally-responsive cancers. Aromatase inhibitors exhibit their antiestrogenic effects by reducing the peripheral conversion of adrenally synthesized androgens (e.g., androstenedione) to estrogens through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme. [54612] Apalutamide: (Major) Progestins are susceptible to drug interactions with hepatic enzyme inducing drugs such as apalutamide. Concurrent administration of apalutamide with progestins, oral contraceptives, or non-oral combination contraceptives may reduce hormonal concentrations. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. If the hormone is used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of apalutamide. Monitor hormonal replacement therapy for loss of efficacy while on apalutamide, with dose adjustments as needed. Women taking hormonal replacement and apalutamide should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. This interaction does not apply to vaginal preparations of progesterone (e.g., Crinone, Endometrin). [62874] [63694] (Major) Women taking both estrogens and apalutamide should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed apalutamide. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of apalutamide. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on apalutamide, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [62874] Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Major) If aprepitant, fosaprepitant is coadministered with hormonal contraceptives, including hormonal contraceptive devices (skin patches, implants, and hormonal IUDs), use an alternative or back-up non-hormonal method of contraception (e.g., condoms, spermicides) during treatment and for at least 1 month following the last dose of aprepitant, fosaprepitant. The efficacy of estrogens (including ethinyl estradiol) and/or progestins may be reduced when coadministered with aprepitant, fosaprepitant and for 28 days after the last dose. The exact mechanism for this interaction has not been described. Ethinyl estradiol is a CYP3A4 substrate and aprepitant, fosaprepitant is a CYP3A4 inducer; however, aprepitant, fosaprepitant is also a dose-dependent weak-to-moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. When administered as an oral 3-day regimen (125mg/80mg/80mg) in combination with ondansetron and dexamethasone, aprepitant decreased trough concentrations of ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone by up to 64% for 3 weeks post-treatment. When ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate were administered on days 1 to 21 and aprepitant (40mg) give as a single dose on day 8, the AUC of ethinyl estradiol decreased by 4% on day 8 and by 29% on day 12; the AUC of norelgestromin increased by 18% on day 8, and decreased by 10% on day 12. Trough concentrations of both ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin were generally lower after coadministration of aprepitant (40mg) on day 8 compared to administration without aprepitant. Specific studies have not been done with other hormonal contraceptives (e.g., progestins, non-oral combination contraceptives), an alternative or additional non-hormonal method of birth control during treatment and for 28 days after treatment is prudent to avoid potential for contraceptive failure. Additionally, although not specifically studied, because estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates, the efficacy of estrogens or progestins when used for hormone replacement may also be reduced. The clinical significance of this is not known since aprepitant, fosaprepitant is only used intermittently. [30676] [40617] [47343] [57085] (Major) If aprepitant, fosaprepitant is coadministered with hormonal contraceptives, including hormonal contraceptive devices (skin patches, implants, and hormonal IUDs), use an alternative or back-up non-hormonal method of contraception (e.g., condoms, spermicides) during treatment and for at least 1 month following the last dose of aprepitant, fosaprepitant. The efficacy of progestins may be reduced when coadministered with aprepitant, fosaprepitant and for 28 days after the last dose. The exact mechanism for this interaction has not been described. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and aprepitant, fosaprepitant is a CYP3A4 inducer; however, aprepitant, fosaprepitant is also a dose-dependent weak-to-moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. When administered as an oral 3-day regimen (125mg/80mg/80mg) in combination with ondansetron and dexamethasone, aprepitant decreased trough concentrations of ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone by up to 64% for 3 weeks post-treatment. When ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate were administered on days 1 to 21 and aprepitant (40mg) give as a single dose on day 8, the AUC of ethinyl estradiol decreased by 4% on day 8 and by 29% on day 12; the AUC of norelgestromin increased by 18% on day 8, and decreased by 10% on day 12. Trough concentrations of both ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin were generally lower after coadministration of aprepitant (40mg) on day 8 compared to administration without aprepitant. Specific studies have not been done with other hormonal contraceptives (e.g., progestins, non-oral combination contraceptives), an alternative or additional non-hormonal method of birth control during treatment and for 28 days after treatment is prudent to avoid potential for contraceptive failure. The clinical significance of this is not known since aprepitant, fosaprepitant is only used intermittently. [30676] [40617] [47343] [57085] Armodafinil: (Major) Armodafinil may cause failure of oral contraceptives or hormonal contraceptive-containing implants or devices due to induction of CYP3A4 isoenzyme metabolism of estradiol, ethinyl estradiol and/or the progestins in these products. Female patients of child-bearing potential should be advised to discuss contraceptive options with their health care provider to prevent unintended pregnancies. An alternative method or an additional method of contraception should be utilized during armodafinil therapy and continued for one month after armodafinil discontinuation. [33467] (Major) Armodafinil may cause failure of oral contraceptives or hormonal contraceptive-containing implants or devices due to induction of CYP3A4 isoenzyme metabolism of estrogens and/or the progestins in these products. Female patients of child-bearing potential should be advised to discuss contraceptive options with their health care provider to prevent unintended pregnancies. An alternative method or an additional method of contraception should be utilized during armodafinil therapy and continued for one month after armodafinil discontinuation. [33467] Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Major) Although no formal drug interaction studies have been performed, the manufacturer states that artemether; lumefantrine may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptives. This may be due to a CYP3A4 interaction. Artemether; lumefantrine is a substrate and ethinyl estradiol is a substrate/inhibitor of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. Additional use of a non-hormonal method of birth control is recommended. [35401] [4744] Ascorbic Acid, Vitamin C: (Minor) Ascorbic acid, vitamin C acts as a competitive inhibitor of the sulfation of ethinyl estradiol in the gastrointestinal tract wall and may increase the bioavailability by 50%. Patients who ingest ascorbic acid supplements may experience an increase in estrogen related side effects. [6395] Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Atazanavir: (Major) Atazanavir may decrease the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; the mean exposure and minimum serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate are increased when administered with atazanavir 400 mg daily. However, if atazanavir is boosted with ritonavir, mean exposure of ethinyl estradiol will be decreased; data are limited regarding use of atazanavir with cobicistat. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with atazanavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [28142] (Major) If ethinyl estradiol is administered with atazanavir boosted with ritonavir, it is recommended that the dose of ethinyl estradiol be at least 35 mcg. However, the dose of ethinyl estradiol should be no more than 30 mcg when administered with atazanavir that is NOT boosted by ritonavir. The mean exposure and minimum serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol are increased when administered with atazanavir; but if atazanavir is boosted with ritonavir, mean exposure of ethinyl estradiol will be decreased. Data are limited regarding use of atazanavir with cobicistat. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with atazanavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [28142] Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Major) Atazanavir may decrease the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; the mean exposure and minimum serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol and norgestimate are increased when administered with atazanavir 400 mg daily. However, if atazanavir is boosted with ritonavir, mean exposure of ethinyl estradiol will be decreased; data are limited regarding use of atazanavir with cobicistat. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with atazanavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [28142] (Major) Concurrent administration of cobicistat and norgestimate results in increased norgestimate serum concentrations. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. There is also the potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Consider alternative methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When progestins are used for other purposes, monitor for altered clinical response to hormonal therapy. [51664] [58000] (Major) If ethinyl estradiol is administered with atazanavir boosted with ritonavir, it is recommended that the dose of ethinyl estradiol be at least 35 mcg. However, the dose of ethinyl estradiol should be no more than 30 mcg when administered with atazanavir that is NOT boosted by ritonavir. The mean exposure and minimum serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol are increased when administered with atazanavir; but if atazanavir is boosted with ritonavir, mean exposure of ethinyl estradiol will be decreased. Data are limited regarding use of atazanavir with cobicistat. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with atazanavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [28142] (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering antiretroviral regimens containing cobicistat with estrogens, such as ethinyl estradiol, or mestranol, which is converted to ethinyl estradiol. There is a potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Insufficient data are available to make dosage recommendations, particularly when cobicistat is used in combination regimens with other antiviral therapies. Consider alternative or additional methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When patients are taking estrogen for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it may be prudent to monitor for reduced clinical efficacy or unusual vaginal bleeding patterns. [51664] [58000] Atorvastatin: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. [5460] Atorvastatin; Ezetimibe: (Minor) Atorvastatin can increase the plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives when the drugs are coadministered. These increases should be considered when administering atorvastatin and oral contraceptives concomitantly. [5460] Azelastine; Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Azithromycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Aztreonam: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Bacitracin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Barbiturates: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Beclomethasone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Belzutifan: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and belzutifan should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed belzutifan. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of belzutifan. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on belzutifan, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and belzutifan is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [66875] (Major) Women taking both progestins and belzutifan should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed belzutifan. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of belzutifan. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and belzutifan is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. [33322] [57648] [66875] Benzhydrocodone; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Betamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Bexarotene: (Major) Bexarotene capsules may theoretically increase the rate of metabolism and reduce plasma concentrations of substrates metabolized by CYP3A4, including oral contraceptives. It is recommended that two reliable forms of contraception be used simultaneously during oral bexarotene therapy. It is strongly recommended that one of the forms of contraception be non-hormonal. Additionally, because of possible CYP3A4 induction, bexarotene may also decrease the efficacy of hormones used for hormone replacement therapy. [4791] [4792] (Major) Women taking both estrogens and bexarotene should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed bexarotene. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of bexarotene. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on bexarotene, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and bexarotene is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [59747] Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Blinatumomab: (Moderate) No drug interaction studies have been performed with blinatumomab. The drug may cause a transient release of cytokines leading to an inhibition of CYP450 enzymes. The interaction risk with CYP450 substrates is likely the highest during the first 9 days of the first cycle and the first 2 days of the second cycle. Monitor patients receiving concurrent CYP450 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index (NTI) such as ethinyl estradiol. The dose of the concomitant drug may need to be adjusted. [58559] Bosentan: (Major) Hormonal contraceptives should not be used as the sole method to prevent pregnancy in patients receiving bosentan. There is a possibility of contraceptive failure when bosentan is coadministered with products containing estrogens and/or progestins. Bosentan is teratogenic. To prevent pregnancy, females of reproductive potential must use 2 acceptable contraception methods during treatment and for 1 month after discontinuation of bosentan therapy. The patient may choose 1 highly effective contraceptive form, including an intrauterine device (IUD) or tubal sterilization, a combination of a hormonal contraceptive with a barrier method, or 2 barrier methods. If a male partner's vasectomy is chosen as a method of contraception, a hormonal or barrier method must still be used by the female patient. Hormonal contraceptives, including oral contraceptives or non-oral combination contraceptives (injectable, transdermal, and implantable contraceptives) may not be reliably effective in the presence of bosentan, since many contraceptive drugs are metabolized by CYP3A4 isoenzymes and bosentan is a significant inducer of CYP3A enzymes. Decreases in hormonal exposure have been documented in drug interaction studies of bosentan with hormonal contraception. Additionally, estrogens and progestins used for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may also be less effective; patients should be monitored for changes in efficacy such as breakthrough bleeding or an increase in hot flashes. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. [28496] (Major) Hormonal contraceptives should not be used as the sole method to prevent pregnancy in patients receiving bosentan. There is a possibility of contraceptive failure when bosentan is coadministered with products containing estrogens and/or progestins. Bosentan is teratogenic. To prevent pregnancy, females of reproductive potential must use two acceptable contraception methods during treatment and for one month after discontinuation of bosentan therapy. The patient may choose one highly effective contraceptive form, including an intrauterine device (IUD) or tubal sterilization, a combination of a hormonal contraceptive with a barrier method, or two barrier methods. If a male partner's vasectomy is chosen as a method of contraception, a hormonal or barrier method must still be used by the female patient. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on bosentan, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and bosentan is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28496] Bromocriptine: (Minor) Bromocriptine is used to restore ovulation and ovarian function in amenorrheic women. Estrogens and progestins can cause amenorrhea and, therefore, counteract the desired effects of bromocriptine. Concurrent use is not recommended; an alternate form of contraception is recommended during bromocriptine therapy. [5066] (Minor) Bromocriptine is used to restore ovulation and ovarian function in amenorrheic women. Progestins can cause amenorrhea and, therefore, counteract the desired effects of bromocriptine. Concurrent use is not recommended; an alternate form of contraception is recommended during bromocriptine therapy. [5066] Budesonide: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Budesonide; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Budesonide; Glycopyrrolate; Formoterol: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Butabarbital: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Cabozantinib: (Minor) Monitor for an increase in ethinyl estradiol-related adverse reactions if coadministration with cabozantinib is necessary. Ethinyl estradiol is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. Cabozantinib is a P-gp inhibitor and has the potential to increase plasma concentrations of P-gp substrates; however, the clinical relevance of this finding is unknown. [52506] [60738] [60859] Caffeine: (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine in an effort to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [7854] (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Caffeine; Sodium Benzoate: (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Calaspargase pegol: (Major) The concomitant use of calaspargase pegol and oral contraceptives may reduce the efficacy of oral contraceptives. Women of reproductive potential should use a non-hormonal method of birth control during therapy and for at least 3 months after the last calaspargase pegol dose due to the risk of fetal harm. [63842] Calcium: (Minor) Estrogens can increase calcium absorption. Use caution in patients predisposed to hypercalcemia or nephrolithiasis. [6395] Calcium-channel blockers: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Canagliflozin: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Canagliflozin; Metformin: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Carbamazepine: (Major) Advise patients taking estrogen hormones for contraception to consider an alternate or additional form of contraception, such as nonhormonal and/or barrier methods, during and for at least 1 month following discontinuation of carbamazepine. Higher-dose hormonal regimens containing a minimum of 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol or equivalent may also be considered. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on carbamazepine, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A substrates and carbamazepine is a strong CYP3A inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28577] [29653] [30675] [30858] [40617] [41237] [47343] [48201] [57085] (Major) Advise patients taking progestin hormones for contraception to consider an alternate or additional form of contraception, such as nonhormonal and/or barrier methods, during and for at least 1 month following discontinuation of carbamazepine. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may also be considered. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on carbamazepine, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A substrates and carbamazepine is a strong CYP3A inducer. Concurrent administration may increase progestin elimination. This interaction does not apply to vaginal preparations of progesterone (e.g., Crinone, Endometrin). [28024] [30675] [33322] [41237] [42126] [48201] [57036] [57588] [57648] [63694] Carbapenems: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefaclor: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefadroxil: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefazolin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefdinir: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefditoren: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefepime: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefiderocol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefixime: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefotaxime: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefotetan: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefoxitin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefpodoxime: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefprozil: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ceftaroline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ceftazidime: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ceftazidime; Avibactam: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ceftibuten: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ceftizoxime: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ceftolozane; Tazobactam: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ceftriaxone: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cefuroxime: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Cenobamate: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and cenobamate should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed cenobamate. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of cenobamate. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on cenobamate, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and cenobamate is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [64768] (Major) Women taking both progestins and cenobamate should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed cenobamate. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of cenobamate. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on cenobamate, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and cenobamate is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase progestin elimination. [33322] [57648] [64768] Cephalexin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ceritinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in estrogenic-related adverse reactions (e.g., nausea, breast tenderness) if coadministration of ethinyl estradiol with ceritinib is necessary. Ceritinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and ethinyl estradiol is a CYP3A4 substrate. [40617] [47343] [57094] Charcoal: (Major) Note that charcoal exerts a nonspecific effect, and many medications can be adsorbed by activated charcoal; repeat doses may decrease the enterohepatic recycling of some drugs. Activated charcoal dietary supplements may have the potential to reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Data clearly demonstrating this interaction are not available. Ovulatory potential was studied during the use of two monophasic oral contraceptive pill preparations, after repeated mid-cycle administration of activated charcoal to treat diarrhea in women. None of eleven women ovulated. Repeated charcoal treatment, when administered 3 hours after but at least 12 hours before pill intake, did not alter oral contraceptive efficacy. [6833] [6834] Chenodiol: (Minor) Estrogens and combination hormonal oral contraceptives increase hepatic cholesterol secretion, and encourage cholesterol gallstone formation and hence may theoretically counteract the effectiveness of chenodiol. [37102] Chloramphenicol: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. In addition, drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Consider monitoring serum potassium concentrations during the first month of dosing in high-risk patients who take strong CYP3A4 inhibitors long-term and concomitantly. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors include chloramphenicol. [28482] [28509] [29624] [31698] Chlordiazepoxide: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines. [7486] Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines. [7486] Chlordiazepoxide; Clidinium: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines. [7486] Chlorpropamide: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Ciclesonide: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Ciprofloxacin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Clarithromycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. In addition, drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Consider monitoring serum potassium concentrations during the first month of dosing in high-risk patients who take strong CYP3A4 inhibitors long-term and concomitantly. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors include clarithromycin. [28238] [28482] [28509] [31698] [34329] Clevidipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Clindamycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Clobazam: (Major) Clobazam induces CYP3A4, which may reduce the concentrations of estrogen and progestin hormones. Hormonal contraceptives may not be reliable when coadministered with clobazam. Females taking hormonal-based birth control should use additional non-hormonal methods and not rely solely on hormonal contraceptive methods when taking clobazam. The additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of the interacting medication. Hormonal contraceptives include combination oral contraceptives, non-oral combination contraceptives, and contraceptives containing only progestins and includes oral, injectable, transdermal, vaginal inserts, and implantable forms of hormonal birth control. Clobazam may also reduce the effectiveness of other estrogens or progestins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on clobazam, with adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. [46370] Clonazepam: (Minor) Oral contraceptives can increase the effects of clonazepam because oral contraceptives inhibit oxidative metabolism, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation. Patients receiving oral contraceptive therapy should be observed for evidence of increased response to clonazepam. [4718] [7486] Clorazepate: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines. [7486] Cobicistat: (Major) Concurrent administration of cobicistat and norgestimate results in increased norgestimate serum concentrations. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. There is also the potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Consider alternative methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When progestins are used for other purposes, monitor for altered clinical response to hormonal therapy. [51664] [58000] (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering antiretroviral regimens containing cobicistat with estrogens, such as ethinyl estradiol, or mestranol, which is converted to ethinyl estradiol. There is a potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Insufficient data are available to make dosage recommendations, particularly when cobicistat is used in combination regimens with other antiviral therapies. Consider alternative or additional methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When patients are taking estrogen for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it may be prudent to monitor for reduced clinical efficacy or unusual vaginal bleeding patterns. [51664] [58000] Cobimetinib: (Major) If concurrent use of cobimetinib and ethinyl estradiol is necessary, use caution and monitor for increased cobimetinib-related adverse effects. Cobimetinib is a CYP3A substrate in vitro, and ethinyl estradiol is a weak in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A. In healthy subjects (n = 15), coadministration of a single 10 mg dose of cobimetinib with itraconazole (200 mg once daily for 14 days), a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased the mean cobimetinib AUC by 6.7-fold (90% CI, 5.6 to 8) and the mean Cmax by 3.2-fold (90% CI, 2.7 to 3.7). Simulations showed that predicted steady-state concentrations of cobimetinib at a reduced dose of 20 mg administered concurrently with short-term (less than 14 days) treatment of a moderate CYP3A inhibitor were similar to observed steady-state concentrations of cobimetinib 60 mg alone. The manufacturer of cobimetinib recommends avoiding coadministration with moderate to strong CYP3A inhibitors, and significantly reducing the dose of cobimetinib if coadministration with moderate CYP3A inhibitors cannot be avoided. Guidance is not available regarding concomitant use of cobimetinib with weak CYP3A inhibitors. [40617] [47343] [57085] [60281] Colesevelam: (Moderate) Administer oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol at least 4 hours prior to a colesevelam dose to avoid an interaction and reduce the potential for loss of contraceptive efficacy. Colesevelam has been shown to significantly decrease the AUC of ethinyl estradiol (EE) in oral contraceptives by about 24% when the drugs are administered at the same time. When the 2 drug products were given 4 hours apart, the drug interaction risk was lessened. Patients should separate times of administration and clinicians should be alert for evidence of an interaction. Consider alternative therapy if indicated. [30812] Colistimethate, Colistin, Polymyxin E: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Colistin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Corticosteroids: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Cortisone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Cosyntropin: (Minor) Use cosyntropin cautiously in patients taking estrogens as these patients may exhibit abnormally high basal plasma cortisol concentrations and a decreased response to the test. [43709] Cyclosporine: (Moderate) Estrogens in oral contraceptives or non-oral combination contraceptives may inhibit the metabolism of cyclosporine. Delayed cyclosporine clearance can increase cyclosporine concentrations. Additionally, estrogens are metabolized by CYP3A4; cyclosporine inhibits CYP3A4 and may increase estrogen concentrations and estrogen-related side effects. The patient's cyclosporine concentrations should be monitored closely; monitor clinical status including blood pressure and renal and hepatic function. Be alert for complaints of estrogen-related side effects (e.g., nausea, fluid retention, breast tenderness). [28025] [29678] [29679] Dabrafenib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of dabrafenib and hormonal contraceptives; decreased hormonal contraceptive concentrations and loss of efficacy may occur. Use of an alternative non-hormonal contraceptive method of birth control is recommended during treatment for 2 weeks after the last dose of dabrafenib. Dabrafenib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer and many hormonal contraceptive are CYP3A4 substrates. [54802] Dalbavancin: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Dantrolene: (Moderate) Concomitant use of dantrolene and estrogens may increase the risk of developing hepatotoxicity. While a definite drug interaction with dantrolene and estrogen therapy has not yet been established, caution should be observed if the two drugs are to be given concomitantly. Hepatotoxicity has occurred more often, for example, in women over 35 years of age receiving concomitant estrogen therapy. [3486] [49509] Dapagliflozin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Dapagliflozin; Metformin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Dapagliflozin; Saxagliptin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] Daptomycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Daratumumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) Estrogens, when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect. [28946] [41365] [41366] Darunavir: (Major) Studies evaluating use of darunavir (boosted with either ritonavir or cobicistat) with ethinyl estradiol have not been conducted; therefore, an alternative (non-hormonal) method of contraception is recommended. Taking these drugs together may alter the exposure and serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol. If the drugs must be used together, instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with darunavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [32432] [58763] (Major) Studies evaluating use of darunavir (boosted with either ritonavir or cobicistat) with norgestimate have not been conducted; therefore, an alternative (non-hormonal) method of contraception is recommended. Taking these drugs together may alter the exposure and serum concentrations of norgestimate. If the drugs must be used together, instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with darunavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [32432] [58763] Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Major) Concurrent administration of cobicistat and norgestimate results in increased norgestimate serum concentrations. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. There is also the potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Consider alternative methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When progestins are used for other purposes, monitor for altered clinical response to hormonal therapy. [51664] [58000] (Major) Studies evaluating use of darunavir (boosted with either ritonavir or cobicistat) with ethinyl estradiol have not been conducted; therefore, an alternative (non-hormonal) method of contraception is recommended. Taking these drugs together may alter the exposure and serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol. If the drugs must be used together, instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with darunavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [32432] [58763] (Major) Studies evaluating use of darunavir (boosted with either ritonavir or cobicistat) with norgestimate have not been conducted; therefore, an alternative (non-hormonal) method of contraception is recommended. Taking these drugs together may alter the exposure and serum concentrations of norgestimate. If the drugs must be used together, instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with darunavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [32432] [58763] (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering antiretroviral regimens containing cobicistat with estrogens, such as ethinyl estradiol, or mestranol, which is converted to ethinyl estradiol. There is a potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Insufficient data are available to make dosage recommendations, particularly when cobicistat is used in combination regimens with other antiviral therapies. Consider alternative or additional methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When patients are taking estrogen for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it may be prudent to monitor for reduced clinical efficacy or unusual vaginal bleeding patterns. [51664] [58000] Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Major) Concurrent administration of cobicistat and norgestimate results in increased norgestimate serum concentrations. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. There is also the potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Consider alternative methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When progestins are used for other purposes, monitor for altered clinical response to hormonal therapy. [51664] [58000] (Major) Studies evaluating use of darunavir (boosted with either ritonavir or cobicistat) with ethinyl estradiol have not been conducted; therefore, an alternative (non-hormonal) method of contraception is recommended. Taking these drugs together may alter the exposure and serum concentrations of ethinyl estradiol. If the drugs must be used together, instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with darunavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [32432] [58763] (Major) Studies evaluating use of darunavir (boosted with either ritonavir or cobicistat) with norgestimate have not been conducted; therefore, an alternative (non-hormonal) method of contraception is recommended. Taking these drugs together may alter the exposure and serum concentrations of norgestimate. If the drugs must be used together, instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives with darunavir boosted with ritonavir or cobicistat to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Further, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, HIV-infected women should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [32432] [58763] (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering antiretroviral regimens containing cobicistat with estrogens, such as ethinyl estradiol, or mestranol, which is converted to ethinyl estradiol. There is a potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Insufficient data are available to make dosage recommendations, particularly when cobicistat is used in combination regimens with other antiviral therapies. Consider alternative or additional methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When patients are taking estrogen for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it may be prudent to monitor for reduced clinical efficacy or unusual vaginal bleeding patterns. [51664] [58000] Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir or ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir with ethinyl estradiol is contraindicated due to the potential for elevated liver function tests (LFTs). Ethinyl estradiol-containing medications must be discontinued prior to starting the hepatitis C regimen, and restarted no sooner than 2 weeks following completion of the hepatitis C regimen. Alternate forms of contraception should be employed at this time. During clinical studies, female patients receiving these drugs in combination experienced significantly higher rates of ALT elevations. Health care providers are advised that estrogens other than ethinyl estradiol did not show the same increase in ALT; however, due to the limited number of study subjects, the manufacturer recommends these estrogens be used with caution when administered with the hepatitis C regimen. [58664] (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir with ethinyl estradiol is contraindicated due to the potential for elevated liver function tests (LFTs). Ethinyl estradiol-containing medications must be discontinued prior to starting dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir, and restarted no sooner than 2 weeks following completion of the hepatitis C regimen. Alternate forms of contraception should be employed at this time. During clinical studies, female patients receiving these drugs in combination experienced significantly higher rates of ALT elevations. Health care providers are advised that estrogens other than ethinyl estradiol did not show the same increase in ALT; however, due to the limited number of study subjects, the manufacturer recommends these estrogens be used with caution when administered with dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir. [58664] (Major) Ritonavir increases the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; coadministration decreases ethinyl estradiol AUC by 40% and Cmax by 32%. Women receiving hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as ritonavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Additionally, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [46638] [5044] Deferasirox: (Moderate) Counsel patients to use non-hormonal methods of contraception during treatment with deferasirox. Deferasirox may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of hormonal contraceptives; thereby decreasing their effectiveness. [30858] [31807] Deflazacort: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Delafloxacin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Delavirdine: (Minor) The concentration of ethinyl estradiol may increase during concurrent administration of delavirdine. However, the clinical significance of this interaction is unknown. [5206] Demeclocycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Dexamethasone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Diazepam: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines. [7486] Dicloxacillin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Diltiazem: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Doripenem: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Doxazosin: (Minor) Estrogen-containing oral contraceptives may induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients taking antihypertensive agents. Such patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained. [24233] [27999] Doxercalciferol: (Moderate) CYP450 enzyme inhibitors, like ethinyl estradiol, may inhibit the 25-hydroxylation of doxercalciferol, thereby decreasing the formation of the active metabolite and thus, decreasing efficacy. Patients should be monitored for a decrease in efficacy if CYP450 inhibitors are coadministered with doxercalciferol. [30802] [51248] Doxorubicin Liposomal: (Moderate) Ethinyl Estradiol is a mild CYP3A4 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major CYP3A4 substrate. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of ethinyl estradiol and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity. [47343] [56361] [57085] Doxorubicin: (Moderate) Ethinyl Estradiol is a mild CYP3A4 inhibitor and doxorubicin is a major CYP3A4 substrate. Clinically significant interactions have been reported when doxorubicin was coadministered with inhibitors of CYP3A4, resulting in increased concentration and clinical effect of doxorubicin. Avoid coadministration of ethinyl estradiol and doxorubicin if possible. If not possible, closely monitor for increased side effects of doxorubicin including myelosuppression and cardiotoxicity. [47343] [56361] [57085] Doxycycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Dronabinol: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of dronabinol with ethinyl estradiol is necessary, and monitor for an increase in dronabinol-related adverse reactions (e.g., feeling high, dizziness, confusion, somnolence). Dronabinol is a CYP2C9 and 3A4 substrate; ethinyl estradiol is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 in vitro. Concomitant use may result in elevated plasma concentrations of dronabinol. [30431] [40617] [47343] [57085] [60951] Dronedarone: (Moderate) Dronedarone is metabolized by CYP3A, is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A, and is an inhibitor of P-gp. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and is a substrate of CYP3A and P-gp. Concomitant use of dronedarone with ethinyl estradiol may increase dronedarone concentrations. Data from clinical studies indicate dronedarone did not increase ethinyl estradiol or levonorgestrel concentrations in healthy subjects receiving dronedarone concomitantly with oral contraceptives. Use caution with any combined oral contraceptives or combined hormonal replacements containing EE, as most of these products contain EE, or they contain mestranol, which is converted to EE. [36101] Efavirenz: (Major) Patients should be advised to use a reliable method of barrier contraception in addition to oral contraceptives or non-oral combination contraceptives, including implantable etonogestrel, while using efavirenz. Efavirenz has no effect on ethinyl estradiol concentrations, but levels of progestins (norelgestromin and levonorgestrel) can be markedly decreased. Norelgestromin Cmax and AUC decreased by 46% and 64%, respectively. Levonorgestrel Cmax and AUC decreased bu 80% and 83%, respectively. There have been post-marketing reports of contraceptive failure with implantable etonogestrel in efavirenz-exposed patients. Decreased exposure of etonogestrel may be expected. There are no effects of ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate on efavirenz plasma concentrations. [28442] [46638] Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Patients should be advised to use a reliable method of barrier contraception in addition to oral contraceptives or non-oral combination contraceptives, including implantable etonogestrel, while using efavirenz. Efavirenz has no effect on ethinyl estradiol concentrations, but levels of progestins (norelgestromin and levonorgestrel) can be markedly decreased. Norelgestromin Cmax and AUC decreased by 46% and 64%, respectively. Levonorgestrel Cmax and AUC decreased bu 80% and 83%, respectively. There have been post-marketing reports of contraceptive failure with implantable etonogestrel in efavirenz-exposed patients. Decreased exposure of etonogestrel may be expected. There are no effects of ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate on efavirenz plasma concentrations. [28442] [46638] Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Patients should be advised to use a reliable method of barrier contraception in addition to oral contraceptives or non-oral combination contraceptives, including implantable etonogestrel, while using efavirenz. Efavirenz has no effect on ethinyl estradiol concentrations, but levels of progestins (norelgestromin and levonorgestrel) can be markedly decreased. Norelgestromin Cmax and AUC decreased by 46% and 64%, respectively. Levonorgestrel Cmax and AUC decreased bu 80% and 83%, respectively. There have been post-marketing reports of contraceptive failure with implantable etonogestrel in efavirenz-exposed patients. Decreased exposure of etonogestrel may be expected. There are no effects of ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate on efavirenz plasma concentrations. [28442] [46638] Elagolix: (Major) During use of elagolix, females of childbearing potential should use non-hormonal methods of contraception for the duration of treatment and for 28 days following the discontinuation of therapy. Estrogen-containing injectable, implantable, transdermal, vaginal or oral contraceptives are expected to reduce the efficacy of elagolix. The effect of progestin-only contraceptives on elagolix is not known. However, elagolix is a weak to moderate inducer of CYP3A4, and many estrogens and progestins are metabolized via this enzyme. Thus, elagolix may decrease plasma concentrations of hormonal contraceptives. Coadministration of elagolix 200 mg twice daily and a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 0.1 mg levonorgestrel decreases the plasma concentrations of levonorgestrel by 27%, potentially affecting contraceptive efficacy. Coadministration of elagolix with COCs containing norethindrone acetate did not show reduction in plasma concentrations of norethindrone. Elagolix may also increase contraceptive concentrations. Coadministration of a COC (containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol/0.1 mg levonorgestrel) following administration of elagolix 200 mg twice daily for 14 days increases the plasma ethinyl estradiol concentration by 2.2-fold compared to this COC alone; this may lead to increased risk of ethinyl estradiol-related adverse events including thromboembolic disorders and vascular events. [63387] Elagolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Major) During use of elagolix, females of childbearing potential should use non-hormonal methods of contraception for the duration of treatment and for 28 days following the discontinuation of therapy. Estrogen-containing injectable, implantable, transdermal, vaginal or oral contraceptives are expected to reduce the efficacy of elagolix. The effect of progestin-only contraceptives on elagolix is not known. However, elagolix is a weak to moderate inducer of CYP3A4, and many estrogens and progestins are metabolized via this enzyme. Thus, elagolix may decrease plasma concentrations of hormonal contraceptives. Coadministration of elagolix 200 mg twice daily and a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 0.1 mg levonorgestrel decreases the plasma concentrations of levonorgestrel by 27%, potentially affecting contraceptive efficacy. Coadministration of elagolix with COCs containing norethindrone acetate did not show reduction in plasma concentrations of norethindrone. Elagolix may also increase contraceptive concentrations. Coadministration of a COC (containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol/0.1 mg levonorgestrel) following administration of elagolix 200 mg twice daily for 14 days increases the plasma ethinyl estradiol concentration by 2.2-fold compared to this COC alone; this may lead to increased risk of ethinyl estradiol-related adverse events including thromboembolic disorders and vascular events. [63387] Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Major) Concurrent administration of cobicistat and norgestimate results in increased norgestimate serum concentrations. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. There is also the potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Consider alternative methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When progestins are used for other purposes, monitor for altered clinical response to hormonal therapy. [51664] [58000] (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering antiretroviral regimens containing cobicistat with estrogens, such as ethinyl estradiol, or mestranol, which is converted to ethinyl estradiol. There is a potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Insufficient data are available to make dosage recommendations, particularly when cobicistat is used in combination regimens with other antiviral therapies. Consider alternative or additional methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When patients are taking estrogen for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it may be prudent to monitor for reduced clinical efficacy or unusual vaginal bleeding patterns. [51664] [58000] (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering elvitegravir with ethinyl estradiol; norgestimate and other combination oral contraceptives. Concurrent use may result in elevated norgestimate and reduced ethinyl estradiol serum concentrations. Risk associated with these altered concentrations may include increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, acne, and venous thrombosis. Consider alternative non-hormonal methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. [46638] [58001] Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Concurrent administration of cobicistat and norgestimate results in increased norgestimate serum concentrations. Instruct women to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects (e.g., insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and acne) to their prescribers. There is also the potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Consider alternative methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When progestins are used for other purposes, monitor for altered clinical response to hormonal therapy. [51664] [58000] (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering antiretroviral regimens containing cobicistat with estrogens, such as ethinyl estradiol, or mestranol, which is converted to ethinyl estradiol. There is a potential for altered efficacy for combined hormonal contraceptives. Insufficient data are available to make dosage recommendations, particularly when cobicistat is used in combination regimens with other antiviral therapies. Consider alternative or additional methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. When patients are taking estrogen for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), it may be prudent to monitor for reduced clinical efficacy or unusual vaginal bleeding patterns. [51664] [58000] (Moderate) Consider the benefits and risk of administering elvitegravir with ethinyl estradiol; norgestimate and other combination oral contraceptives. Concurrent use may result in elevated norgestimate and reduced ethinyl estradiol serum concentrations. Risk associated with these altered concentrations may include increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, acne, and venous thrombosis. Consider alternative non-hormonal methods of contraception, such as condoms, to prevent unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV/AIDS. [46638] [58001] Empagliflozin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [60134] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Empagliflozin; Linagliptin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [60134] (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents, such as linagliptin, should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [60134] (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents, such as linagliptin, should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [60134] (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Enalapril; Felodipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Encorafenib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of encorafenib and hormonal contraceptives due to the potential for loss of contraceptive efficacy. Advise females of reproductive potential to use an effective, non-hormonal method of contraception during treatment and for 2 weeks after the final dose of encorafenib. Encorafenib can cause fetal harm when administered during pregnancy. [63317] Enzalutamide: (Major) Avoid coadministration of enzalutamide with progestins if used for contraception; consider an alternate or additional form of contraception. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of enzalutamide. Patients taking hormonal replacement therapy may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on enzalutamide, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. Women taking hormonal replacement and enzalutamide should report breakthrough bleeding, hot flashes, or other symptoms to their prescribers. Progestins are substrates of CYP3A4 and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration of enzalutamide with progestins, oral contraceptives, or non-oral combination contraceptives may reduce hormonal concentrations. This interaction does not apply to vaginal preparations of progesterone (e.g., Crinone, Endometrin). [51727] [63694] (Major) Women taking both estrogens and enzalutamide should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed enzalutamide. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of enzalutamide. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on enzalutamide, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [51727] [57085] Eravacycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ergotamine; Caffeine: (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [31082] Ertapenem: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ertugliflozin: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Ertugliflozin; Metformin: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Ertugliflozin; Sitagliptin: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Erythromycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Eslicarbazepine: (Major) Coadministration of eslicarbazepine with oral contraceptives may result in contraceptive failure. Coadministration of eslicarbazepine and ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel has resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of these hormones. Instruct females of child-bearing potential to use additional or non-hormonal contraception during therapy with eslicarbazepine and after treatment has been discontinued for at least one menstrual cycle. [56436] Estazolam: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of estazolam. Patients receiving oral contraceptive therapy should be observed for evidence of increased response to such benzodiazepines. [7486] Etravirine: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and etravirine should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed etravirine. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of etravirine. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on etravirine, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and etravirine is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [33718] [40617] [47343] [57085] (Major) Women taking both progestins and etravirine should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed etravirine. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for one month after discontinuation of etravirine. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and etravirine is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. [33322] [33718] [57648] [63694] Exemestane: (Major) Estrogens, including hormonal contraceptives, could interfere competitively with the pharmacologic action of the aromatase inhibitors. The goal of aromatase inhibitor therapy is to decrease circulating estrogen concentrations and inhibit the growth of hormonally-responsive cancers. Estrogen therapy is not recommended during aromatase inhibitor treatment, due to opposing pharmacologic actions. Aromatase inhibitors (e.g., aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole, testolactone, vorozole) exhibit their antiestrogenic effects by reducing the peripheral conversion of adrenally synthesized androgens (e.g., androstenedione) to estrogens through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme. [29110] Exenatide: (Moderate) Separate the administration times of exenatide and estrogen and progestin containing oral contraceptives. Advise patients to take estrogen and progestin containing oral contraceptives at least 1 hour before exenatide. Exenatide slows gastric emptying and simultaneous coadministration may reduce the rate and extent of estrogen and progestin oral absorption which may reduce efficacy. Additionally, estrogens can impair glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day. [30585] [44456] [48491] [62853] Felbamate: (Major) Based on very limited data, it appears felbamate can accelerate the clearance of the estrogen component of some oral contraceptives. Patients who experience breakthrough bleeding while receiving these drugs together should notify their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be used during concomitant treatment. Additionally, patients taking non-oral combination contraceptives or estrogens or progestins for hormone replacement therapy may also experience reduced clinical efficacy; dosage adjustments may be necessary. [7006] [7241] (Major) Estrogens and progestins are both susceptible to drug interactions with hepatic enzyme inducing drugs. Estrogens are metabolized by CYP3A4. Anticonvulsants that stimulate the activity of this enzyme include: barbiturates (including primidone), carbamazepine, felbamate, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin or fosphenytoin (and possibly ethotoin), and topiramate. The anticonvulsants mentioned may cause oral contraceptive failure, especially when low-dose estrogen regimens (e.g., ethinyl estradiol is < 50 mcg/day) are used. Epileptic women taking both anticonvulsants and OCs may be at higher risk of folate deficiency secondary to additive effects on folate metabolism and the higher risk for oral contraceptive failure. During oral contraceptive failure, the additive effects could potentially heighten the risk of neural tube defects in pregnancy. Women on OCs and enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant medications concurrently should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. Oral contraceptive formulations containing higher dosages of ethinyl estradiol (i.e., 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol) may be needed to increase contraceptive efficacy. It may be prudent for some women who receive OCs concurrently with enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants to use an additional contraceptive method to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Higher dosages of oral contraceptives (e.g., ethinyl estradiol >= 50 mcg/day) or a second contraceptive method are typically suggested if women use an enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drug or a barbiturate. Proper intake of folic acid should also be ensured. [4970] [4971] [5306] [5307] [7006] [7241] Felodipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Fidaxomicin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Flibanserin: (Moderate) The concomitant use of flibanserin and multiple weak CYP3A4 inhibitors, including oral contraceptives, may increase flibanserin concentrations, which may increase the risk of flibanserin-induced adverse reactions. Therefore, patients should be monitored for hypotension, syncope, somnolence, or other adverse reactions, and the risks of combination therapy with multiple weak CYP3A4 inhibitors and flibanserin should be discussed with the patient. In one study of 24 healthy women, the effect of 100 mg flibanserin once daily for 2 weeks on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg/levonorgestrel 150 mcg was evaluated. Flibanserin increased the AUC and Cmax of ethinyl estradiol by 1.09-fold and 1.1-fold, respectively. Flibanserin decreased the levonorgestrel AUC by 1.06-fold. During pre-marketing evaluation of flibanserin, patients who reported using oral contraceptives had a greater incidence of CNS effects than flibenserin-treated patients who did not report oral contraceptive use, including dizziness (13.4% vs. 9.9%), somnolence (12.3% vs. 10.6%), and fatigue (11.4% vs. 7.5%). [60099] Fluconazole: (Minor) CYP3A4 inhibitors such as fluconazole may increase plasma hormone concentrations of ethinyl estradiol. Fluconazole tablets, administered concomitantly with oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol have resulted in an overall mean increase in ethinyl estradiol compared to placebo. However, in some patients there are decreases up to 47% of ethinyl estradiol concentrations. The available data indicate that the decreases in some individual ethinyl estradiol AUC values with fluconazole treatment are likely due to random variation. While there is evidence that fluconazole can inhibit the metabolism of ethinyl estradiol, there is no evidence that fluconazole is a net inducer of ethinyl estradiol metabolism. The clinical significance of these effects is unknown. [28674] [40226] Fludrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Flunisolide: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Flurazepam: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of flurazepam. Patients receiving oral contraceptive therapy should be observed for evidence of increased response to benzodiazepines. [7486] Fluticasone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Fluticasone; Salmeterol: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Fluticasone; Umeclidinium; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Fluticasone; Vilanterol: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Formoterol; Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Fosamprenavir: (Major) Avoid concurrent use of contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies (HRT) containing estrogens with fosamprenavir. Alternative methods of non-hormonal contraception are recommended. Concomitant use may decrease the efficacy of both the estrogen and fosamprenavir, which could lead to loss of virologic response and possible viral resistance. Additionally, there is an increased risk of transaminase elevations during concurrent use of estrogens and fosamprenavir boosted with ritonavir. [29012] [68183] (Major) Avoid concurrent use of contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies (HRT) containing progestins with fosamprenavir. Alternative methods of non-hormonal contraception are recommended. Concomitant use may decrease the efficacy of both the progestin and fosamprenavir, which could lead to loss of virologic response and possible viral resistance. Additionally, there is an increased risk of transaminase elevations during concurrent use of progestins and fosamprenavir boosted with ritonavir. [29012] [68183] Fosphenytoin: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and phenytoin/fosphenytoin should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed phenytoin/fosphenytoin. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of phenytoin/fosphenytoin. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on phenytoin/fosphenytoin, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and phenytoin/fosphenytoin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28535] [28771] [29653] [30858] [40617] [55436] [57085] Fostemsavir: (Major) When administering ethinyl estradiol concurrently with fostemsavir, do not exceed a maximum daily ethinyl estradiol dose of 30 mcg. Caution is advised, particularly in patients with additional risk factors for thromboembolic events. In a drug interactions study, the systemic concentration of ethinyl estradiol was increased when given with fostemsavir. [65666] Frovatriptan: (Minor) Retrospective analysis of pharmacokinetic data from females across trials indicated that the mean Cmax and AUC of frovatriptan are 30% higher in those subjects taking oral contraceptives (e.g., those containing ethinyl estradiol) compared to those not taking oral contraceptives. The clinical significance of the interaction has not been established. Hormone replacement therapy regimens (HRT) are not thought to interact, based on data with other 'triptans' with similar pharmacokinetic interactions with oral contraceptives. [29266] Gemifloxacin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used with antibiotics. Oral contraceptives (estrogen/progesterone) reduced the AUC and Cmax of gemifloxacin by 19% and 12%, respectively. These reductions are considered to be clinically insignificant. Gemifloxacin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of an ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel oral contraceptive product in healthy females. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28424] [28482] [28509] Gentamicin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir: (Major) Coadministration of glecaprevir with ethinyl estradiol is not recommended due to an increased risk of ALT elevations associated with ethinyl estradiol. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of ethinyl estradiol-containing oral contraceptives with glecaprevir; pibrentasvir resulted in a 28% to 40% increase in the AUC of ethinyl estradiol. [25473] [48151] [51257] [62201] (Major) Coadministration of pibrentasvir with ethinyl estradiol is not recommended due to an increased risk of ALT elevations associated with ethinyl estradiol. In drug interaction studies, coadministration of ethinyl estradiol-containing oral contraceptives with glecaprevir; pibrentasvir resulted in a 28% to 40% increase in the AUC of ethinyl estradiol. [25473] [48151] [51257] [62201] Glimepiride: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Glimepiride; Rosiglitazone: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Glipizide: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Glipizide; Metformin: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Glyburide: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Glyburide; Metformin: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Glycylcyclines: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Grapefruit juice: (Minor) Grapefruit juice has been reported to decrease the metabolism of some estrogens. Grapefruit juice contains a compound that inhibits CYP3A4 in enterocytes. Estrogen levels may increase by up to 30 percent with chronic use. The clinical significance of the interaction is unknown. It is possible that estrogen induced side effects could be increased in some individuals. Patients should be advised to not significantly alter their grapefruit juice ingestion.When chronically ingesting any CYP3A4 inhibitor ( > 30 days) with estrogens, adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated by signs and symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding. [56074] [6395] Green Tea: (Minor) Serum concentrations of caffeine may be increased during concurrent administration with ethinyl estradiol. Patients may desire to limit products that contain high amounts of caffeine like green tea, to minimize caffeine-related side effects such as nausea or tremors. [4664] Griseofulvin: (Major) The concurrent use of griseofulvin and oral contraceptives can reduce contraceptive efficacy and result in an unintended pregnancy and/or breakthrough bleeding. This risk is particularly serious because griseofulvin is contraindicated during pregnancy due to the risk of teratogenic and abortifacient effects. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be used during concomitant treatment and continued for 1 month after griseofulvin discontinuation. If these drugs are used together, counsel the patient about the risk of pregnancy and teratogenic effects, and instruct the patient to notify the prescriber if they experience breakthrough bleeding while receiving these drugs together. Additionally, patients taking non-oral combination contraceptives or progestins for hormone replacement therapy may also experience reduced clinical efficacy. [28509] [45723] [58441] [59800] (Major) Women taking both estrogens and griseofulvin should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed griseofulvin. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of griseofulvin. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on griseofulvin, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination; the mechanism by which griseofulvin enhances estrogen elimination has not been fully elucidated. [28509] [29653] [29964] [30858] Hemin: (Moderate) Hemin works by inhibiting aminolevulinic acid synthetase. Estrogens increase the activity of this enzyme should not be used with hemin. [6702] Hyaluronidase, Recombinant; Immune Globulin: (Minor) Estrogens, when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect. [28946] [41365] [41366] Hyaluronidase: (Minor) Estrogens, when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect. [28946] [41365] [41366] Hydantoins: (Major) Women taking both progestins and hydantoins should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of non-hormonal contraception should be considered in patients prescribed hydantoins. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of hydantoins. Patients taking progestins for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on hydantoins, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Hydantoins are strong hepatic CYP450 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase progestin elimination This interaction does not apply to vaginal preparations of progesterone (e.g., Crinone, Endometrin). [28535] [28771] [42126] [48201] [57036] [57588] [57648] [63694] Hydralazine: (Minor) The administration of estrogens can increase fluid retention, which increases blood pressure, thereby antagonizing the antihypertensive effects of hydralazine. [805] Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Minor) The administration of estrogens can increase fluid retention, which increases blood pressure, thereby antagonizing the antihypertensive effects of hydralazine. [805] Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Minor) The administration of estrogens can increase fluid retention, which increases blood pressure, thereby antagonizing the antihypertensive effects of hydralazine. [805] Hydrocortisone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Icosapent ethyl: (Moderate) Estrogens may exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia and should be discontinued or changed to alternate therapy, if possible, prior to initiation of icosapent ethyl. [51323] Idelalisib: (Moderate) Idelalisib is a strong CYP3A inhibitor, and ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a CYP3A substrate. Use caution in dose selection, as the hormonal side effects of ethinyl estradiol may be increased. The AUC of a sensitive CYP3A substrate was increased 5.4-fold when coadministered with idelalisib. Females of reproductive potential should avoid becoming pregnant during idelalisib therapy, using effective contraception during treatment and for at least 1 month after the last dose. Thus, use idelalisib with caution in combination with any combination oral contraceptives, most of which contain EE or mestranol (which is converted to EE). In addiiton, drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Consider monitoring serum potassium concentrations during the first month of dosing in high-risk patients who take strong CYP3A4 inhibitors long-term and concomitantly. [31698] [47343] [4744] [57675] Imipenem; Cilastatin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Imipenem; Cilastatin; Relebactam: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Indinavir: (Major) Indinavir decreases the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; the AUC for ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone increased by 24+/-17% and 26+/-14%, respectively, when coadministered with indinavir. Women receiving hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as indinavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. Because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [28731] [46638] Insulin Glargine; Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Separate the administration times of lixisenatide and estrogen and progestin containing oral contraceptives. Advise patients to take estrogen and progestin containing oral contraceptives at least 1 hour before or 11 hours after lixisenatide. Lixisenatide slows gastric emptying and simultaneous coadministration may reduce the rate and extent of estrogen and progestin oral absorption which may reduce efficacy. Additionally, estrogens can impair glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day. [30585] [48491] [61024] [62853] Insulins: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [60172] Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with ethinyl estradiol may result in increased serum concentrations of both drugs. Ethinyl estradiol is a substrate and inhibitor of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4 and substrate of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is a sensitive substrate and moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and an inhibitor of P-gp. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together. [40617] [47343] [57085] [59042] Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and rifamycins should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifamycins. In some cases, it may be advisable for patients to change to non-hormonal methods of birth control during rifamycin therapy. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of rifamycins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on rifamycins, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and rifamycins are a CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28001] [28482] [28483] [28509] [29210] [30314] [32946] (Major) Women taking both progestins and rifampin should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifampin. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for one month after discontinuation of rifampin. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and rifampin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. [30314] [33322] [57648] Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and rifamycins should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifamycins. In some cases, it may be advisable for patients to change to non-hormonal methods of birth control during rifamycin therapy. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of rifamycins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on rifamycins, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and rifamycins are a CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28001] [28482] [28483] [28509] [29210] [30314] [32946] (Major) Women taking both progestins and rifampin should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifampin. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for one month after discontinuation of rifampin. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and rifampin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. [30314] [33322] [57648] Isradipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Itraconazole: (Moderate) The estrogens in oral contraceptives are partially metabolized by CYP3A4. Drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 such as itraconazole may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and cause estrogen-related side effects such as nausea and breast tenderness. Patients receiving estrogens should be monitored for an increase in adverse events. [41929] Ivosidenib: (Major) Consider alternative methods of contraception in patients receiving ivosidenib. Coadministration may decrease the concentrations of hormonal contraceptives. [63368] Kanamycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in the incidence and severity of estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant use of ethinyl estradiol and ketoconazole. Concomitant use may increase ethinyl estradiol exposure. Ethinyl estradiol is a CYP3A substrate and ketoconazole is a strong CYP3A inhibitor. [41929] [43307] [58441] Lamotrigine: (Major) A lamotrigine maintenance dose increase of up to 2-fold may be required during concomitant use of estrogen hormones. Increase the dose no more rapidly than 50 to 100 mg/day every week based on clinical response. Coadministration of an oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol has been observed to decrease the AUC and Cmax of lamotrigine by 52% and 39%, respectively. During the oral contraceptive pill-free week, trough lamotrigine concentrations have been observed to increase an average of 2-fold which may transiently increase the risk for lamotrigine-related adverse effects. If lamotrigine-related adverse effects consistently occur during the pill-free week, the overall lamotrigine maintenance dose may need to be reduced. [28451] (Moderate) Patients taking progestin hormones for contraception may consider an alternate or additional form of contraception, such as nonhormonal and/or barrier methods, during and for at least 1 month after discontinuation of lamotrigine. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may also be considered. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on lamotrigine with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. The AUC and Cmax of levonorgestrel decreased by 19% and 12%, respectively, among 16 volunteers during concurrent use with lamotrigine 300 mg/day. Serum progesterone concentrations did not suggest ovulation, however, serum FSH, LH, and estradiol concentrations suggested some loss of suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. [28451] [44123] [48201] Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. In addition, drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Consider monitoring serum potassium concentrations during the first month of dosing in high-risk patients who take strong CYP3A4 inhibitors long-term and concomitantly. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors include clarithromycin. [28238] [28482] [28509] [31698] [34329] Lefamulin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Leflunomide: (Moderate) Carefully consider the type and dose of oral contraceptives in patients taking leflunomide.Leflunomide may increase the effects of oral contraceptives. Following oral administration, leflunomide is metabolized to an active metabolite, teriflunomide, which is responsible for essentially all of leflunomide's in vivo activity. Following repeated teriflunomide doses, mean ethinyl estradiol Cmax and AUC increased 1.58- and 1.54-fold, respectively. Levonorgestrel Cmax increased 1.33-fold and AUC 1.41-fold during coadministration. [49634] Lenalidomide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of lenalidomide with estrogens may increase the risk of thrombosis in patients with multiple myeloma patients who are also receiving dexamethasone. Use lenalidomide and estrogen-containing agents with caution in these patients. Monitor for signs of thromboembolism (e.g., deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke) and encourage patients to report symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or arm or leg swelling. [49472] Lesinurad: (Major) Lesinurad induces CYP3A4, which may reduce the concentrations of estrogen and progestin hormones. Hormonal contraceptives may not be reliable when coadministered with lesinurad. Females taking hormonal-based birth control should use additional non-hormonal methods and not rely solely on hormonal contraceptive methods when taking lesinurad. Hormonal contraceptives include combination oral contraceptives, non-oral combination contraceptives, and contraceptives containing only progestins and includes oral, injectable, transdermal, vaginal inserts, and implantable forms of hormonal birth control. Lesinurad may also reduce the effectiveness of other estrogens or progestins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on lesinurad, with adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. [60473] Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Major) Lesinurad induces CYP3A4, which may reduce the concentrations of estrogen and progestin hormones. Hormonal contraceptives may not be reliable when coadministered with lesinurad. Females taking hormonal-based birth control should use additional non-hormonal methods and not rely solely on hormonal contraceptive methods when taking lesinurad. Hormonal contraceptives include combination oral contraceptives, non-oral combination contraceptives, and contraceptives containing only progestins and includes oral, injectable, transdermal, vaginal inserts, and implantable forms of hormonal birth control. Lesinurad may also reduce the effectiveness of other estrogens or progestins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on lesinurad, with adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. [60473] Letrozole: (Contraindicated) Estrogens, including hormonal contraceptives, could interfere competitively with the pharmacologic action of the aromatase inhibitors. The goal of aromatase inhibitor therapy is to decrease circulating estrogen concentrations and inhibit the growth of hormonally-responsive cancers. Estrogen therapy is not recommended during aromatase inhibitor treatment, due to opposing pharmacologic actions. Aromatase inhibitors (e.g., aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole, testolactone, vorozole) exhibit their antiestrogenic effects by reducing the peripheral conversion of adrenally synthesized androgens (e.g., androstenedione) to estrogens through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme. [28123] [29101] [29110] [29360] Levamlodipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Levofloxacin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Levoketoconazole: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in the incidence and severity of estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant use of ethinyl estradiol and ketoconazole. Concomitant use may increase ethinyl estradiol exposure. Ethinyl estradiol is a CYP3A substrate and ketoconazole is a strong CYP3A inhibitor. [41929] [43307] [58441] Levothyroxine: (Minor) The administration of estrogens can increase circulating concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin. Increased amounts of thyroxine-binding globulin may result in a reduced clinical response to thyroid hormones. Some hypothyroid patients on estrogen may require larger doses of thyroid hormones. Monitor thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and follow the recommendation for thyroid hormone replacement. [29653] [43942] [53562] Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Minor) The administration of estrogens can increase circulating concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin. Increased amounts of thyroxine-binding globulin may result in a reduced clinical response to thyroid hormones. Some hypothyroid patients on estrogen may require larger doses of thyroid hormones. Monitor thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and follow the recommendation for thyroid hormone replacement. [29653] [43942] [53562] Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Minor) The administration of estrogens can increase circulating concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin. Increased amounts of thyroxine-binding globulin may result in a reduced clinical response to thyroid hormones. Some hypothyroid patients on estrogen may require larger doses of thyroid hormones. Monitor thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and follow the recommendation for thyroid hormone replacement. [29653] [43942] [53562] Linagliptin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents, such as linagliptin, should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] Linagliptin; Metformin: (Minor) Estrogens, progestins, or oral contraceptives can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving > 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol per day. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of this effect. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents, such as linagliptin, should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] Lincomycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Lincosamides: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Linezolid: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Liothyronine: (Minor) The administration of estrogens can increase circulating concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin. Increased amounts of thyroxine-binding globulin may result in a reduced clinical response to thyroid hormones. Some hypothyroid patients on estrogen may require larger doses of thyroid hormones. Monitor thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and follow the recommendation for thyroid hormone replacement. [29653] [43942] [53562] Lixisenatide: (Moderate) Separate the administration times of lixisenatide and estrogen and progestin containing oral contraceptives. Advise patients to take estrogen and progestin containing oral contraceptives at least 1 hour before or 11 hours after lixisenatide. Lixisenatide slows gastric emptying and simultaneous coadministration may reduce the rate and extent of estrogen and progestin oral absorption which may reduce efficacy. Additionally, estrogens can impair glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day. [30585] [48491] [61024] [62853] Lomitapide: (Major) Concomitant use of lomitapide and oral contraceptives may significantly increase the serum concentration of lomitapide. Therefore, the lomitapide dose should not exceed 30 mg/day PO during concurrent use. Oral Contraceptives are weak CYP3A4 inhibitors; the exposure to lomitapide is increased by approximately 2-fold in the presence of weak CYP3A4 inhibitors. In addition, females of reproductive potential must use effective contraception during lomitapide therapy. Because vomiting and diarrhea have been frequently reported during lomitapide therapy and hormone absorption from oral contraceptives may be incomplete in the presence of vomiting or diarrhea, warn patients that the use of additional contraceptive methods is warranted if vomiting or diarrhea occur. [52698] Lonapegsomatropin: (Moderate) Somatropin can induce the activity of cytochrome-mediated metabolism of antipyrine clearance. Because estrogens are also metabolized in this way, somatropin may alter the metabolism of estrogens. In addition, growth-hormone deficient women also treated with estrogen replacement therapy require substantially more somatropin therapy to obtain comparable effects when compared to women not taking estrogen. Patients should be monitored for changes in efficacy of either drug when somatropin and estrogens are coadministered. [6807] Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Ritonavir increases the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; coadministration decreases ethinyl estradiol AUC by 40% and Cmax by 32%. Women receiving hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as ritonavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Additionally, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [46638] [5044] Lorazepam: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may enhance the metabolism of lorazepam. It appears glucuronide conjugation of lorazepam is increased in the presence of combined hormonal oral contraceptives; the clinical significance of this interaction is not determined. [7486] Lorlatinib: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and lorlatinib should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed lorlatinib. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of lorlatinib. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on lorlatinib, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and lorlatinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [57085] [63732] (Major) Women taking both progestins and lorlatinib should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed lorlatinib. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of lorlatinib. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and lorlatinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. [33322] [57648] [63732] Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of hormonal contraceptives and lumacaftor; ivacaftor, unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may decrease hormonal contraceptive exposure, reducing efficacy. When coadministered with lumacaftor; ivacaftor, hormonal contraceptives are not a reliable method of effective contraception; instruct patients on alternative methods of birth control. In addition, concomitant use may increase the incidence of menstruation-associated adverse reactions (e.g., amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia). [59891] Mafenide: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Mavacamten: (Major) Patients taking both estrogens and mavacamten should report breakthrough vaginal bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed mavacamten. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 4 months after discontinuation of mavacamten. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on mavacamten, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A substrates and mavacamten is a moderate CYP3A inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [67543] Mecamylamine: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients taking antihypertensive agents, like mecamylamine. Such patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained. [24233] [40219] Meglitinides: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [7053] Meropenem: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Meropenem; Vaborbactam: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Metformin: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] Metformin; Repaglinide: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] Metformin; Rosiglitazone: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Metformin; Saxagliptin: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] Metformin; Sitagliptin: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] Methohexital: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Methylprednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Metreleptin: (Major) Concurrent use of metreleptin with estrogens may produce unpredictable effects, including a decrease in estrogen efficacy or an increase in estrogen-related adverse effects. Women taking both estrogens and metreleptin should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed metreleptin. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of metreleptin. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect or an increase in adverse effects while on metreleptin, with dose adjustments made based on clinical response. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and metreleptin may alter the formation of CYP enzymes. Concurrent administration may increase or decrease estrogen elimination. [56753] Metronidazole: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Metyrapone: (Moderate) A subtherapeutic response to metyrapone can be seen in patients on estrogen therapy. When metapyrone is used as a diagnostic drug for testing hypothalamic-pituitary ACTH function, the effect of estrogen may need to be considered, or, another diagnostic test chosen. If possible, consider discontinuing the use of estrogen prior to and during testing. During use for Cushing's syndrome, estrogen therapy may increase cortisol levels, which may attenuate the response to metyrapone treatment. Monitor for evidence of clinical response to treatment, and adjust treatment as clinically indicated. [33528] [33675] Miconazole: (Minor) Miconazole vaginal products may be administered with most hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol, as most of the time any increase in ethinyl estradiol AUC is minimal and unlikely to cause significant side effects, though some patients may notice breast tenderness or nausea. In patients using contraceptive vaginal rings, water-based miconazole products are preferred. Oil-based miconazole vaginal products appear to increase ethinyl estradiol exposure from the contraceptive vaginal rings. Water-based miconazole vaginal products or an alternative oral therapy may be used concurrently with vaginal rings containing ethinyl estradiol. In drug interaction studies with ethinyl estradiol-containing vaginal rings, single-dose vaginal administration of a 1,200 mg miconazole suppository increased the systemic exposure of ethinyl estradiol by 16% to 67%, depending on the contraceptive vaginal ring in use. When 200 mg miconazole vaginal suppositories were administered, the ethinyl estradiol systemic exposures were also increased, with a maximal reported increase of 42% on day 3 of miconazole vaginal suppository use. Multiple doses of a 200 mg miconazole nitrate vaginal cream with the etonogestrel; ethinyl estradiol ring increased the mean serum concentration of ethinyl estradiol by up to 40%. Water-based vaginal miconazole cream did not affect the pharmacokinetics of the segesterone acetate; ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring. [43310] [63429] Miconazole; Petrolatum; Zinc Oxide: (Minor) Miconazole vaginal products may be administered with most hormonal contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol, as most of the time any increase in ethinyl estradiol AUC is minimal and unlikely to cause significant side effects, though some patients may notice breast tenderness or nausea. In patients using contraceptive vaginal rings, water-based miconazole products are preferred. Oil-based miconazole vaginal products appear to increase ethinyl estradiol exposure from the contraceptive vaginal rings. Water-based miconazole vaginal products or an alternative oral therapy may be used concurrently with vaginal rings containing ethinyl estradiol. In drug interaction studies with ethinyl estradiol-containing vaginal rings, single-dose vaginal administration of a 1,200 mg miconazole suppository increased the systemic exposure of ethinyl estradiol by 16% to 67%, depending on the contraceptive vaginal ring in use. When 200 mg miconazole vaginal suppositories were administered, the ethinyl estradiol systemic exposures were also increased, with a maximal reported increase of 42% on day 3 of miconazole vaginal suppository use. Multiple doses of a 200 mg miconazole nitrate vaginal cream with the etonogestrel; ethinyl estradiol ring increased the mean serum concentration of ethinyl estradiol by up to 40%. Water-based vaginal miconazole cream did not affect the pharmacokinetics of the segesterone acetate; ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring. [43310] [63429] Midazolam: (Minor) Oral contraceptives can increase the effects of midazolam because oral contraceptives inhibit oxidative metabolism, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation. Patients receiving oral contraceptive therapy should be observed for evidence of increased response to midazolam. [7486] Mifepristone: (Major) Mifepristone is a progesterone-receptor antagonist and will interfere with the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. Therefore, non-hormonal contraceptive methods should be used in Cushing's patients taking mifepristone. [48697] Miglitol: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Miltefosine: (Moderate) Miltefosine-induced vomiting and/or diarrhea may affect absorption of oral contraceptives and compromise their efficacy. If vomiting or diarrhea occur during miltefosine therapy, advise females to use an additional non-oral method of effective contraception. [56867] Mineral Oil: (Minor) While information regarding this interaction is limited, it appears that the simultaneous oral administration of estrogens and mineral oil may decrease the oral absorption of the estrogens, resulting in lower estrogen plasma concentrations. This interaction may be more likely with the chronic administration of mineral oil, as opposed to a single dose of mineral oil used for occasional constipation. In order to avoid an interaction, it would be prudent to separate administration times, giving estrogens 1 hour before or 2 hours after the oral administration of mineral oil. [30487] Minocycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Minoxidil: (Minor) Estrogens can cause fluid retention, increasing blood pressure and thereby antagonizing the antihypertensive effects of minoxidil. [805] Mitapivat: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and mitapivat should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed mitapivat. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of mitapivat. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on mitapivat, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A substrates and mitapivat is a CYP3A inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [67403] Mitotane: (Major) Norgestimate is not recommended for women who require chronic use of drugs that are potent inducers of hepatic enzymes, including mitotane, because contraception efficacy is likely to be reduced. Consider additional or alternative forms of contraception. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and progestins like norgestimate are CYP3A4 substrates. Coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of oral and other hormonal combination contraceptives. [41934] [43307] (Major) Women taking both estrogens and mitotane should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed mitotane. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of mitotane. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on mitotane, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [41934] [57085] Mivacurium: (Moderate) Plasma cholinesterase activity may be diminished by chronic administration of oral contraceptives; consider the possibility of prolonged neuromuscular block after administration of mivacurium in patients with reduced plasma cholinesterase activity. The use of a peripheral nerve stimulator is strongly recommended to evaluate the level of neuromuscular blockade, to assess the need for additional doses of neuromuscular blocker, and to determine whether adjustments need to be made to the dose with subsequent administration. [42613] [65534] Mobocertinib: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and mobocertinib should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed mobocertinib. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of mobocertinib. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on mobocertinib, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A substrates and mobocertinib is a weak CYP3A inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [66990] (Major) Women taking both progestins and mobocertinib should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed mobocertinib. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for one month after discontinuation of mobocertinib. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A substrates and mobocertinib is a weak CYP3A inducer. [33322] [57648] [63694] [66990] Modafinil: (Major) Modafinil may cause failure of oral contraceptives or hormonal contraceptive-containing implants or devices due to induction of CYP3A4 isoenzyme metabolism of ethinyl estradiol in these products. An alternative method or an additional method of contraception should be utilized during modafinil therapy and continued for one month after modafinil discontinuation. [41243] (Major) Modafinil may cause failure of oral contraceptives or hormonal contraceptive-containing implants or devices due to induction of CYP3A4 isoenzyme metabolism of the progestins in these products. An alternative method or an additional method of contraception should be utilized during modafinil therapy and continued for one month after modafinil discontinuation. If these drugs are used together, monitor patients for a decrease in clinical effects; patients should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescriber. Dosage adjustments may be necessary. [4718] [4744] [5259] Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Morphine: (Moderate) Combination oral contraceptives have been shown to decrease plasma concentrations of morphine, due to induction of conjugation. Monitor for decreased efficacy of morphine. [43307] [58441] Morphine; Naltrexone: (Moderate) Combination oral contraceptives have been shown to decrease plasma concentrations of morphine, due to induction of conjugation. Monitor for decreased efficacy of morphine. [43307] [58441] Moxifloxacin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28423] [28482] [28509] Mycophenolate: (Moderate) Mycophenolate mofetil may not have any influence on the ovulation suppressing action of ethinyl estradiol. However, it is recommended that hormonal contraceptives be given to women receiving mycophenolate and additional birth control methods be considered. [4702] [4873] Nafcillin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Naratriptan: (Minor) Concurrent use of oral contraceptives (e.g, those containing ethinyl estradiol) reduced naratriptan clearance by 32% and volume of distribution by 22% during clinical trials. The decrease in clearance resulted in slightly higher plasma levels of naratriptan. A clinical significance to this interaction has not been established. Estrogen-based hormone replacement therapy had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of naratriptan in postmenopausal females. [6005] Nelfinavir: (Major) Nelfinavir increases the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; coadministration with ethinyl estradiol; norethindrone results in a 47% decrease in ethinyl estradiol plasma concentrations and an 18% decrease in norethindrone plasma concentrations. Women receiving hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as nelfinavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Additionally, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [28839] Neomycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Nevirapine: (Moderate) Nevirapine may decrease plasma concentrations of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives (i.e., ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone). However despite lower exposures, literature suggests that use of nevirapine has no effect on pregnancy rates among HIV-infected women on combined oral contraceptives. Thus, the manufacturer states that no dose adjustments are needed when these drugs are used for contraception in combination with nevirapine. When these oral contraceptives are used for hormone replacement and given with nevirapine, the therapeutic effect of the hormonal therapy should be monitored. [42456] (Moderate) Women taking both estrogens and nevirapine should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. Nevirapine may decrease plasma concentrations of hormonal contraceptives. However, despite lower exposures, literature suggests that use of nevirapine has no effect on pregnancy rates among HIV-infected women on combined oral contraceptives. Thus, the manufacturer states that no dose adjustments are needed when these drugs are used for contraception in combination with nevirapine. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on nevirapine, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and nevirapine is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [42456] Nicardipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Nifedipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Nimodipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir: (Major) Ritonavir increases the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; coadministration decreases ethinyl estradiol AUC by 40% and Cmax by 32%. Women receiving hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as ritonavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Additionally, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [46638] [5044] (Major) The FDA recommends consideration of an additional, non-hormonal method of contraception during the 5 days of treatment with ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir and until one menstrual cycle after stopping ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir. However, the NIH COVID-19 guidelines suggest the potential decrease in ethinyl estradiol exposure is not expected to be clinically significant during the 5 days of therapy. [65314] [67203] Nisoldipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Nitrofurantoin: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Nitroprusside: (Minor) The administration of estrogens may increase blood pressure, and thereby antagonizing the antihypertensive effects of nitroprusside. [805] Ofloxacin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Olopatadine; Mometasone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Omadacycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Contraindicated) Concomitant use of dasabuvir; ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir or ombitasvir; paritaprevir; ritonavir with ethinyl estradiol is contraindicated due to the potential for elevated liver function tests (LFTs). Ethinyl estradiol-containing medications must be discontinued prior to starting the hepatitis C regimen, and restarted no sooner than 2 weeks following completion of the hepatitis C regimen. Alternate forms of contraception should be employed at this time. During clinical studies, female patients receiving these drugs in combination experienced significantly higher rates of ALT elevations. Health care providers are advised that estrogens other than ethinyl estradiol did not show the same increase in ALT; however, due to the limited number of study subjects, the manufacturer recommends these estrogens be used with caution when administered with the hepatitis C regimen. [58664] (Major) Ritonavir increases the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; coadministration decreases ethinyl estradiol AUC by 40% and Cmax by 32%. Women receiving hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as ritonavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Additionally, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [46638] [5044] Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and rifamycins should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifamycins. In some cases, it may be advisable for patients to change to non-hormonal methods of birth control during rifamycin therapy. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of rifamycins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on rifamycins, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and rifamycins are a CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28001] [28482] [28483] [28509] [29210] [30314] [32946] (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Oritavancin: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Ospemifene: (Major) Ospemifene should not be used concomitantly with estrogens. The safety of concomitant use of ospemifene with estrogens or estrogen agonists/antagonists has not been studied. [53344] Oxacillin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Oxazepam: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of benzodiazepines that undergo oxidation, thereby increasing serum concentrations of concomitantly administered benzodiazepines. [7486] Oxcarbazepine: (Major) Progestins are susceptible to drug interactions with hepatic enzyme inducing drugs such as oxcarbazepine. Concurrent administration of oxcarbazepine progestins may increase the hormone's elimination. A high percentage of breakthrough bleeding has been reported in the literature from the combined use of oxcarbazepine and oral contraceptives; the results of one study demonstrated that the mean AUC of ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel was decreased by 52% when coadministered with oxcarbazepine. Women taking both hormones and hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed hepatic enzyme inducing drugs, or higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable as pregnancy has been reported in patients taking the hepatic enzyme inducing drug phenytoin concurrently with hormonal contraceptives. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of the interacting medication. Additionally, epileptic women taking both anticonvulsants and OCs may be at higher risk of folate deficiency secondary to additive effects on folate metabolism; if oral contraceptive failure occurs, the additive effects could potentially heighten the risk of neural tube defects in pregnancy. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on oxcarbazepine, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. [22005] [5307] [55436] [57046] [57048] [5749] [57648] [6300] (Major) Women taking both estrogens and oxcarbazepine should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed oxcarbazepine. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of oxcarbazepine. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on oxcarbazepine, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and oxcarbazepine is a CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration has been shown to decrease the exposure of some estrogens by approximately 50%. [29014] Paromomycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Pazopanib: (Moderate) Pazopanib is a substrate for CYP3A4. Ethinyl estradiol is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. Concurrent administration may result in increased pazopanib concentrations. Dose reduction of pazopanib may be necessary when coadministration of pazopanib and ethinyl estradiol is required. [37098] Pegaspargase: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of pegaspargase and oral hormonal contraceptives due to the potential for decreased contraceptive efficacy and risk of fetal harm from pegaspargase. Women of reproductive potential should use an effective non-hormonal method of birth control during therapy and for at least 3 months after the last pegaspargase dose. [61310] Penicillin G Benzathine: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillins and their derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use (i.e., amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides, etc.) may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Penicillin G Benzathine; Penicillin G Procaine: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillins and their derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use (i.e., amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides, etc.) may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Penicillin G Procaine: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillins and their derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use (i.e., amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides, etc.) may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Penicillin G: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillins and their derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use (i.e., amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides, etc.) may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Penicillin V: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillins and their derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use (i.e., amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides, etc.) may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Pentobarbital: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Pertuzumab; Trastuzumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) Estrogens, when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect. [28946] [41365] [41366] Pexidartinib: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of pexidartinib and hormone-containing contraceptives; the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives may be decreased resulting in contraceptive failure. Females of reproductive potential should avoid pregnancy during and for 1 month after treatment with pexidartinib. Advise these patients to use an effective, non-hormonal method of contraception. Pexidartinib is a moderate CYP3A inducer and many oral contraceptives are metabolized by CYP3A. [64535] Phenobarbital: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Phenothiazines: (Minor) Oral contraceptives may also cause additive photosensitization with phenothiazines. [5765] Phenoxybenzamine: (Minor) Estrogen-containing oral contraceptive may induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients taking antihypertensive agents. Such patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained. [4716] [805] Phentermine; Topiramate: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and topiramate should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed topiramate, especially for patients receiving topiramate doses greater than 200 mg per day. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of topiramate. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on topiramate, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28378] (Moderate) Topiramate may reduce the efficacy of progestins used in contraception or hormone replacement therapies. Reduced contraceptive efficacy can occur even in the absence of breakthrough bleeding. Dosages of hormone replacement products may need adjustment. Different or additional forms of contraception (e.g., non-hormonal contraceptives) may also be needed. In a pharmacokinetic interaction study, a combination oral contraceptive (containing norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol) administered with only topiramate at doses of 50 to 200 mg/day did not result in clinically significant alterations of AUC for either component of the oral contraceptive. Norethindrone pharmacokinetics were not significantly affected. Pregnancy has been reported in patients who are using hormonal-containing contraceptives and hepatic enzyme inducers. [22005] [28378] [33941] [48201] [57046] [57048] [57588] [57648] Phenytoin: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and phenytoin/fosphenytoin should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed phenytoin/fosphenytoin. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of phenytoin/fosphenytoin. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on phenytoin/fosphenytoin, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and phenytoin/fosphenytoin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. Additionally, epileptic women taking both anticonvulsants and hormonal contraceptives may be at higher risk of folate deficiency secondary to additive effects on folate metabolism; if oral contraceptive failure occurs, the additive effects could potentially heighten the risk of neural tube defects in pregnancy. [28535] [28771] [29653] [30858] [40617] [55436] [57085] Pioglitazone: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Pioglitazone; Glimepiride: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Pioglitazone; Metformin: (Minor) Monitor blood glucose periodically in patients on metformin for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents like metformin should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. [28550] [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Piperacillin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Piperacillin; Tazobactam: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Pitolisant: (Major) Advise patients to use an alternative, non-hormonal contraceptive during and for at least 21 days after discontinuation of pitolisant. Pitolisant is a weak CYP3A4 inducer and may decrease the plasma exposure of hormonal contraceptives resulting in decreased efficacy. [64562] Plazomicin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Polymyxin B: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Posaconazole: (Moderate) Posaconazole and ethinyl estradiol should be coadministered with caution due to an increased potential for adverse events. Both posaconazole and ethinyl estradiol are inhibitors of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme partially responsible for the metabolism of ethinyl estradiol. Further, both ethinyl estradiol and posaconazole are substrates of the drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein, which when administered together may increase the absorption or decrease the clearance of the other drug. This complex interaction may cause alterations in the plasma concentrations of both posaconazole and ethinyl estradiol, ultimately resulting in an increased risk of adverse events. [32723] [4744] Pramlintide: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [7053] Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (Dietary Supplements): (Moderate) Either additive or antagonistic effects could potentially occur if prasterone is combined with estrogen therapy. [2455] (Moderate) Either additive or antagonistic effects could potentially occur if prasterone is combined with progestins. [2455] Prasterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA (FDA-approved): (Moderate) Either additive or antagonistic effects could potentially occur if prasterone is combined with estrogen therapy. [2455] (Moderate) Either additive or antagonistic effects could potentially occur if prasterone is combined with progestins. [2455] Prazosin: (Minor) Estrogen-containing oral contraceptive may induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients taking antihypertensive agents. Such patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained. [4716] [805] Prednisolone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Prednisone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Pretomanid: (Major) Avoid coadministration of pretomanid with oral contraceptives, especially in patients with impaired hepatic function, due to increased risk for hepatotoxicity. Monitor for evidence of hepatotoxicity if coadministration is necessary. If new or worsening hepatic dysfunction occurs, discontinue hepatotoxic medications. [63549] [64561] Primidone: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Quazepam: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the clearance of quazepam. Patients receiving oral contraceptive therapy should be observed for evidence of increased response to benzodiazepines. [7486] Raloxifene: (Major) The concurrent use of raloxifene and systemic estrogens or other hormone replacement therapy has not been studied in prospective clinical trials. Thus, concomitant use of raloxifene with systemic estrogens is not recommended. [29603] Ramelteon: (Moderate) Coadministration of ramelteon with inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as ethinyl estradiol, may lead to increases in the serum concentrations of ramelteon. [4718] Ranolazine: (Major) Ranolazine is metabolized mainly by CYP3A. According to the manufacturer, the ranolazine dosage should be limited to 500 mg PO twice daily for patients receiving drugs known to be moderate CYP3A inhibitors. Although not specifically mentioned by the manufacturer, ethinyl estradiol is known to inhibit CYP3A4. A reduction in the ranolazine dose may be prudent if these two agents are administered concurrently. In addition, ranolazine may decrease the absorption of ethinyl estradiol via P-glycoprotein inhibition. [4718] Rasagiline: (Minor) Monitor for dopaminergic adverse effects during concurrent use of rasagiline and ethinyl estradiol. Increased rasagiline concentrations are possible, but not likely. A dose reduction of rasagiline may be necessary in the rare patient. Rasagiline is primarily metabolized by CYP1A2. Oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol are noted to be CYP1A2 inhibitors, but published clinical evidence of drug-drug interactions due to this effect are lacking. [32223] [56579] Reserpine: (Minor) Estrogen-containing oral contraceptive may induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients taking antihypertensive agents. Such patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained. [4716] [805] Ribociclib: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of ribociclib with ethinyl estradiol is necessary, as the systemic exposure of ethinyl estradiol may be increased resulting in an increase in estrogenic-related adverse reactions (e.g., nausea, breast tenderness). Ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and ethinyl estradiol is a CYP3A4 substrate. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [61816] Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Contraindicated) Estrogens, including hormonal contraceptives, could interfere competitively with the pharmacologic action of the aromatase inhibitors. The goal of aromatase inhibitor therapy is to decrease circulating estrogen concentrations and inhibit the growth of hormonally-responsive cancers. Estrogen therapy is not recommended during aromatase inhibitor treatment, due to opposing pharmacologic actions. Aromatase inhibitors (e.g., aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole, testolactone, vorozole) exhibit their antiestrogenic effects by reducing the peripheral conversion of adrenally synthesized androgens (e.g., androstenedione) to estrogens through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme. [28123] [29101] [29110] [29360] (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of ribociclib with ethinyl estradiol is necessary, as the systemic exposure of ethinyl estradiol may be increased resulting in an increase in estrogenic-related adverse reactions (e.g., nausea, breast tenderness). Ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and ethinyl estradiol is a CYP3A4 substrate. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [61816] Rifabutin: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and rifamycins should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifamycins. In some cases, it may be advisable for patients to change to non-hormonal methods of birth control during rifamycin therapy. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of rifamycins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on rifamycins, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and rifamycins are a CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28001] [28482] [28483] [28509] [29210] [30314] [32946] Rifampin: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and rifamycins should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifamycins. In some cases, it may be advisable for patients to change to non-hormonal methods of birth control during rifamycin therapy. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of rifamycins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on rifamycins, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and rifamycins are a CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28001] [28482] [28483] [28509] [29210] [30314] [32946] (Major) Women taking both progestins and rifampin should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifampin. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for one month after discontinuation of rifampin. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and rifampin is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. [30314] [33322] [57648] Rifamycins: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and rifamycins should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifamycins. In some cases, it may be advisable for patients to change to non-hormonal methods of birth control during rifamycin therapy. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of rifamycins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on rifamycins, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and rifamycins are a CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28001] [28482] [28483] [28509] [29210] [30314] [32946] Rifapentine: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and rifamycins should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifamycins. In some cases, it may be advisable for patients to change to non-hormonal methods of birth control during rifamycin therapy. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of rifamycins. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on rifamycins, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and rifamycins are a CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28001] [28482] [28483] [28509] [29210] [30314] [32946] (Major) Women taking both progestins and rifapentine should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed rifapentine. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for one month after discontinuation of rifapentine. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and rifapentine is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. [33322] [57648] [65685] Riluzole: (Moderate) Monitor patients for increased riluzole-related adverse events, such as gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated hepatic enzymes, when hormonal contraceptives are prescribed concurrently. Serum concentrations of riluzole, a CYP1A2 substrate, may increase when oral contraceptives, moderate CYP1A2 inhibitors, are used concurrently. In vitro findings suggest an increase in riluzole exposure is likely when a CYP1A2 inhibitor is given. [29747] [57048] Ritonavir: (Major) Ritonavir increases the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; coadministration decreases ethinyl estradiol AUC by 40% and Cmax by 32%. Women receiving hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as ritonavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. It may be prudent for women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs to use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Additionally, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [46638] [5044] Rituximab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) Estrogens, when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect. [28946] [41365] [41366] Roflumilast: (Moderate) Coadminister oral contraceptives containing gestodene and ethinyl estradiol and roflumilast cautiously, as the combination has resulted in increased drug exposure to roflumilast in pharmacokinetic study. In an open-label crossover study in 20 healthy adult volunteers, coadministration of a single dose of oral roflumilast 500 mcg with repeated doses of a fixed combination oral contraceptive containing 0.075 mg gestodene and 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol to steady state resulted in a 38% increase in Cmax of roflumilast and a 12% decrease in Cmax of the active metabolite roflumilast N-oxide. Roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide AUCs were increased by 51% and 14%, respectively. A similar interaction is expected with oral contraceptives and ethinyl estradiol; etonogestrel. [43551] Romidepsin: (Major) The concomitant use of romidepsin and ethinyl estradiol may reduce the efficacy of ethinyl estradiol. Because romidepsin can cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman, females of reproductive potential should use an alternative effective contraception method (e.g., condoms or intrauterine devices) during treatment with romidepsin and for at least 1 month after the final dose. Romidepsin showed high affinity for binding to estrogen receptors in pharmacology studies. [37292] Ropinirole: (Moderate) Concomitant use of ropinirole and higher doses of estrogens may increase the exposure of ropinirole. A dose adjustment of ropinirole may be needed when estrogen therapy is initiated or discontinued. Some estrogens have reduced ropinirole oral clearance by 36%. [31241] Rosiglitazone: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Rosuvastatin: (Minor) When coadministered with oral contraceptives during drug interaction studies, rosuvastatin produced an approximately 1.3-fold increase in the AUC and maximal concentrations of ethinyl estradiol. The changes are not likely to be of clinical consequence for most patients; some patients may experience increases in common side effects of hormonal contraceptives, such as breast tenderness, nausea, headache, or fluid retention. [27988] Rosuvastatin; Ezetimibe: (Minor) When coadministered with oral contraceptives during drug interaction studies, rosuvastatin produced an approximately 1.3-fold increase in the AUC and maximal concentrations of ethinyl estradiol. The changes are not likely to be of clinical consequence for most patients; some patients may experience increases in common side effects of hormonal contraceptives, such as breast tenderness, nausea, headache, or fluid retention. [27988] Rufinamide: (Major) Coadministration of hormonal contraceptives with rufinamide may reduce hormone concentrations and therefore reduce the clinical efficacy of hormonal contraceptives. If coadministration is necessary, recommend patients use additional non-hormonal forms of contraception. Hormonal contraceptives are metabolized by CYP3A4 and rufinamide is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. [34590] Ruxolitinib: (Moderate) Ruxolitinib is a CYP3A4 substrate. When used with drugs that are mild or moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4 such as ethinyl estradiol, a dose adjustment is not necessary, but monitoring patients for toxicity may be prudent. There was an 8% and 27% increase in the Cmax and AUC of a single dose of ruxolitinib 10 mg, respectively, when the dose was given after a short course of erythromycin 500 mg PO twice daily for 4 days. The change in the pharmacodynamic marker pSTAT3 inhibition was consistent with the increase in exposure. [46782] Saquinavir: (Major) The concurrent use of saquinavir boosted with ritonavir and oral contraceptives should be avoided if possible due to the potential for decreased contraceptive effectiveness. Saquinavir may increase the metabolism of oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives. Women receiving hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as saquinavir/ritonavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. Women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional method of contraception to protect against unwanted pregnancy. Additionally, because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. Furthermore, the oral contraceptive, ethinyl estradiol, may inhibit CYP3A4 mediated metabolism of saquinavir, potentially resulting in elevated saquinavir plasma concentrations and the development of saquinavir-related adverse effects. [28995] [46638] Sarilumab: (Moderate) Utilize caution with concomitant use of sarilumab and CYP3A4 substrate drugs, such as combined hormonal oral contraceptives, where a decrease in effectiveness is undesirable. Inhibition of IL-6 signaling by sarilumab may restore CYP450 activities to higher levels leading to increased metabolism of drugs that are CYP450 substrates as compared to metabolism prior to treatment. This effect on CYP450 enzyme activity may persist for several weeks after stopping sarilumab. In vitro, sarilumab has the potential to affect expression of multiple CYP enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. [61976] Saxagliptin: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] Secobarbital: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and barbiturates should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed barbiturates. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of barbiturates. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on barbiturates, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and barbiturate are strong CYP3A4 inducers. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [22005] [28200] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30858] [40617] [48201] [49996] [51268] [56579] [57271] (Moderate) Barbiturates can accelerate the hepatic clearance of progestins. For hormonal contraceptives, this interaction could result in unintended pregnancy or breakthrough bleeding. For patients regularly taking a barbiturate, an alternative or back-up method of contraception may be advisable to ensure contraceptive reliability during the use of the barbiturate, and for 1 month following the discontinuation of barbiturate use. The exception is the use of levonorgestrel progestin IUDs, which have not been reported to interact and appear to maintain reliable efficacy. Pregnancy has been reported during therapy with both estrogen- and/or progestin-based oral contraceptives in patients receiving barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital). For patients taking progestins for other indications, like hormone replacement, monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of reduced therapeutic efficacy or need for dosage adjustment. [22005] [28502] [29653] [29821] [30802] [30858] [30890] [33322] [42126] [46375] [48201] [48254] [49996] [57048] [57271] [57649] [59800] [62899] Selegiline: (Moderate) Consider a selegiline dose reduction to minimize the risk for selegiline-related adverse reactions during concomitant ethinyl estradiol use. Concomitant use may increase selegiline exposure. [68188] SGLT2 Inhibitors: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] Siltuximab: (Moderate) Caution is warranted when siltuximab is used in patients taking CYP3A4 substrates, such as oral contraceptives, in which a decreased effect would be undesirable. Cytochrome P450s in the liver are down regulated by infection and inflammation stimuli, including cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inhibition of IL-6 signaling by siltuximab may restore CYP450 activities to higher levels leading to increased metabolism of drugs that are CYP450 substrates as compared to metabolism prior to treatment. The effect of siltuximab on CYP450 enzyme activity can persist for several weeks after stopping therapy. [57062] Simvastatin; Sitagliptin: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] Sincalide: (Moderate) Sincalide-induced gallbladder ejection fraction may be affected by concurrent oral contraceptives. False study results are possible in patients with drug-induced hyper- or hypo-responsiveness; thorough patient history is important in the interpretation of procedure results. [9348] [9349] Sitagliptin: (Minor) Progestins can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for changes in diabetic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. [7347] Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir: (Moderate) Use caution when administering velpatasvir with ethinyl estradiol. Taking these drugs together may increase the plasma concentrations velpatasvir and ethinyl estradiol, potentially resulting in adverse events. Velpatasvir is a CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 substrate; ethinyl estradiol is an in vitro inhibitor of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. In addition, ethinyl estradiol is a substrate for the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); velpatasvir is a P-gp inhibitor. [40617] [47343] [57085] [60911] Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Moderate) Use caution when administering velpatasvir with ethinyl estradiol. Taking these drugs together may increase the plasma concentrations velpatasvir and ethinyl estradiol, potentially resulting in adverse events. Velpatasvir is a CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 substrate; ethinyl estradiol is an in vitro inhibitor of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. In addition, ethinyl estradiol is a substrate for the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp); velpatasvir is a P-gp inhibitor. [40617] [47343] [57085] [60911] Somatropin, rh-GH: (Moderate) Somatropin can induce the activity of cytochrome-mediated metabolism of antipyrine clearance. Because estrogens are also metabolized in this way, somatropin may alter the metabolism of estrogens. In addition, growth-hormone deficient women also treated with estrogen replacement therapy require substantially more somatropin therapy to obtain comparable effects when compared to women not taking estrogen. Patients should be monitored for changes in efficacy of either drug when somatropin and estrogens are coadministered. [6807] Sotorasib: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and sotorasib should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed sotorasib. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of sotorasib. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on sotorasib, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and sotorasib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [29653] [30858] [40617] [47343] [57085] [66700] St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Major) As with other CYP3A4 inducers, St. John's wort may reduce the therapeutic efficacy of progestin-only contraceptives or other progestin-based hormonal therapies. Patients should report irregular menstrual bleeding or other hormone-related symptoms to their health care providers if they are taking St. John's wort concurrently with their hormones. Avoidance of St. John's wort is recommended. This interaction does not apply to vaginal preparations of progesterone (e.g., Crinone, Endometrin). [42126] [48201] [57202] [57588] [57648] [63694] (Major) Women taking both estrogens and St. John's Wort should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed St. John's Wort. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of St. John's Wort. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on St. John's Wort, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and St. John's Wort is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28211] [29653] [30858] [40617] [56579] [57085] [57202] Streptogramins: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. Additionally, dalfopristin; quinupristin is a major inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4 and may decrease the elimination of drugs metabolized by this enzyme including ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone. In addition, drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Consider monitoring serum potassium concentrations during the first month of dosing in high-risk patients who take strong CYP3A4 inhibitors long-term and concomitantly. [28482] [28509] [31698] Streptomycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Succinylcholine: (Moderate) Plasma cholinesterase activity may be diminished by chronic administration of oral contraceptives; consider the possibility of prolonged neuromuscular block after administration of succinylcholine in patients with reduced plasma cholinesterase activity. The use of a peripheral nerve stimulator is strongly recommended to evaluate the level of neuromuscular blockade, to assess the need for additional doses of neuromuscular blocker, and to determine whether adjustments need to be made to the dose with subsequent administration. [42039] [65534] Sugammadex: (Major) If an oral contraceptive is taken the same day sugammadex is administered, the patient must use an additional, non-hormonal contraceptive method or back-up method of contraception for the next 7 days. Sugammadex may bind to progestogen, resulting in a decrease in progestogen exposure. The administration of a bolus dose of sugammadex results in actions that are essentially equivalent to missing one or more doses of contraceptives containing estrogen or progestogen, including combination oral contraceptives, non-oral combination contraceptives, or progestins. [60450] Sulfadiazine: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim, SMX-TMP, Cotrimoxazole: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Sulfasalazine: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Sulfonamides: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Sulfonylureas: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Tacrolimus: (Moderate) Tacrolimus is metabolized via the hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A4. Drugs that inhibit this isoenzyme, such as ethinyl estradiol, can decrease the metabolism of tacrolimus. Subsequent increased whole blood concentrations of tacrolimus may lead to nephrotoxicity or other side effects. [4718] Tazemetostat: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and tazemetostat should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed tazemetostat. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 6 months after discontinuation of tazemetostat. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on tazemetostat, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Estrogens are CYP3A4 substrates and tazemetostat is a CYP3A4 inducer. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [64952] (Major) Women taking both progestins and tazemetostat should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. An alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed tazemetostat. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of tazemetostat. For patients on hormone replacement treatments (HRT) with progestins, monitor for altered clinical response, such as increased hot flashes, vaginal dryness, changes in withdrawal bleeding, or other signs of decreased hormonal efficacy. Progestins are CYP3A4 substrates and tazemetostat is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. [33322] [57648] [64952] Tedizolid: (Moderate) It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives containing estrogens due to stimulation of estrogen metabolism or a reduction in estrogen enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with oral contraceptives (OCs) and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma levels of oral contraceptives. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review of the subject concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances.Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Telavancin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Telmisartan; Amlodipine: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Temazepam: (Minor) Ethinyl estradiol may enhance the metabolism of temazepam. Because temazepam clearance is increased by combined oral contraceptives, mean plasma concentration may be decreased. The clinical significance of this interaction is not determined. [30723] Temsirolimus: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in ethinyl estradiol-related adverse reactions if coadministration with temsirolimus is necessary. Ethinyl estradiol is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and temsirolimus is a P-gp inhibitor. Concomitant use may to lead to increased concentrations of ethinyl estradiol. [50586] [60859] Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) Monitor for norgestimate-related adverse events, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, acne, and venous thrombosis, and consider risks and benefits of coadministration of tenofovir alafenamide in persons who have risk factors for these events. Concomitant use may increase norgestimate concentrations. [60269] Terazosin: (Minor) Estrogen-containing oral contraceptive may induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients taking antihypertensive agents. Such patients should be monitored to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained. [4716] [805] Terbinafine: (Moderate) Due to the risk for terbinafine related adverse effects, caution is advised when coadministering ethinyl estradiol. Although this interaction has not been studied by the manufacturer, and published literature suggests the potential for interactions to be low, taking these drugs together may increase the systemic exposure of terbinafine. Predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathways of both drugs. Terbinafine is metabolized by at least 7 CYP isoenyzmes, with major contributions coming from CYP2C19 and CYP3A4; ethinyl estradiol is an inhibitor of these enzymes. Monitor patients for adverse reactions if these drugs are coadministered. [37590] [43880] [43881] [56538] Teriflunomide: (Moderate) Teriflunomide may increase the effects of oral contraceptives. Following consecutive teriflunomide doses, mean ethinyl estradiol Cmax and AUC increased 1.58- and 1.54-fold, respectively, during coadministration. Levonorgestrel Cmax increased 1.33-fold and AUC 1.41-fold during coadministration. Use caution when selecting the type and dose of oral contraceptives in patients taking teriflunomide. [51794] Testolactone: (Contraindicated) Estrogens could interfere competitively with the pharmacologic action of the aromatase inhibitors. The goal of aromatase inhibitor therapy is to decrease circulating estrogen concentrations and inhibit the growth of hormonally-responsive cancers. Estrogen therapy is not recommended during aromatase inhibitor treatment, due to opposing pharmacologic actions. Aromatase inhibitors (e.g., aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole, testolactone, vorozole) exhibit their antiestrogenic effects by reducing the peripheral conversion of adrenally synthesized androgens (e.g., androstenedione) to estrogens through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme. In addition, in women receiving long-term aromatase inhibitor therapy, atrophic vaginitis due to estrogen suppression is common; atrophic vaginitis due to aromatase inhibitor therapy is sometimes treated with vaginal estrogen as the systemic exposure of estrogen from vaginal preparations is thought to be low. In a study of 7 women on aromatase inhibitor therapy, estrogen concentrations rose significantly after the addition of vaginally administered estrogen for atrophic vaginitis. Estrogen concentrations increased from a mean baseline level of < 5 pmol/l to 72 pmol/l after 2 weeks and to < 35 pmol/l at 4 weeks. Although the study was small, estrogen concentrations rose significantly in 6/7 patients. Clinicians should be aware that serum estrogen concentrations may increase with the use of vaginal estrogen preparations; alternative treatments for atrophic vaginitis in patients taking aromatase inhibitors should be considered. [4846] [5837] [5847] [6098] [8953] Tetracycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Thalidomide: (Moderate) Thalidomide and hormone contraceptives should be used cautiously due an increased risk of thromboembolism. The pharmacokinetic parameters of norethindrone/estradiol were not affected when a single dose of norethindrone 1 mg/estradiol 75 micrograms was administered in 10 healthy women who were receiving thalidomide 200 mg/day (at steady state levels). [49713] Theophylline, Aminophylline: (Moderate) Theophylline or aminophylline concentrations may be increased during administration with ethinyl estradiol. This interaction occurs from the inhibition of methylxanthine oxidation in the liver. A aminophylline or theophylline dose adjustment may be needed in some patients. Estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives decrease theophylline clearance in a dose-dependent fashion and may cause up to a 30% increase in thephylline concentrations. [31082] [44232] [44294] Thiazolidinediones: (Minor) Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be periodically monitored for changes in glycemic control when hormone therapy is instituted or discontinued. Estrogens can decrease the hypoglycemic effects of antidiabetic agents by impairing glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day in combined oral contraceptives (COCs), which are not commonly used in practice since the marketing of lower dose COCs, patches, injections and rings. The presence or absence of a concomitant progestin may influence the significance of any hormonal effect on glucose homeostasis. [30585] [62853] (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [30585] [62853] Thyroid hormones: (Minor) The administration of estrogens can increase circulating concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin. Increased amounts of thyroxine-binding globulin may result in a reduced clinical response to thyroid hormones. Some hypothyroid patients on estrogen may require larger doses of thyroid hormones. Monitor thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and follow the recommendation for thyroid hormone replacement. [29653] [43942] [53562] Tigecycline: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Tinidazole: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Tipranavir: (Major) Tipranavir increases the metabolism of hormonal contraceptives, including combined oral contraceptives and non-oral combination contraceptives; concentrations of ethinyl estradiol decrease by 50% when coadministered. Additionally, in one drug interaction trial in healthy female volunteers administered a single dose of ethinyl estradiol followed by tipranavir with ritonavir, 33% of subjects developed a rash. Women receiving combined hormonal contraceptives and anti-retroviral protease inhibitors (PIs), such as tipranavir, should be instructed to report any breakthrough bleeding or other adverse effects to their prescribers. Alternate methods of non-hormonal contraception should be used in patients receiving tipranavir. Because hormonal contraceptives do not protect against the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, women who receive hormonal contraceptives concurrently with PIs should use an additional barrier method of contraception such as condoms. [46638] [8102] Tirzepatide: (Major) Advise patients receiving tirzepatide and oral contraceptives to switch to a non-oral contraceptive method or to add a barrier method of contraception for 4 weeks after initiation and for 4 weeks after each dose escalation of tirzepatide. Tirzepatide delays gastric emptying and may reduce the rate and extent of estrogen and progestin absorption which may reduce efficacy. Gastric emptying delays are greatest after the first dose of tirzepatide and diminish over time. Hormonal contraceptives that are not administered orally should not be affected. Additionally, estrogens can impair glucose tolerance. Changes in glucose tolerance occur more commonly in patients receiving 50 mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol (or equivalent) per day. [30585] [48491] [62853] [67631] Tizanidine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of tizanidine and oral contraceptives as increased tizanidine exposure may occur. If use together is necessary, initiate tizanidine with a single 2 mg dose and increase by 2 to 4 mg/day based on clinical response. Discontinue tizanidine if hypotension, bradycardia, or excessive drowsiness occurs. A retrospective analysis of population pharmacokinetic data found that the clearance of tizanidine was 50% lower in females taking oral contraceptives compared to those not on oral contraceptives. [52430] Tobacco: (Major) Advise patients to avoid cigarette smoking while taking estrogen hormones. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Combined hormonal contraceptives are contraindicated in females who are over 35 years of age and smoke. [29653] [30858] [67846] Tobramycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Tocilizumab: (Moderate) Utilize caution with concomitant use of tocilizumab and CYP3A4 substrate drugs, such as combined hormonal oral contraceptives, where a decrease in effectiveness is undesirable. Inhibition of IL-6 signaling by tocilizumab may restore CYP450 activities to higher levels leading to increased metabolism of drugs that are CYP450 substrates as compared to metabolism prior to treatment. This effect on CYP450 enzyme activity may persist for several weeks after stopping tocilizumab. In vitro, tocilizumab has the potential to affect expression of multiple CYP enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4. [38283] Tolazamide: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Tolbutamide: (Minor) Progestins can impair glucose tolerance. Patients receiving antidiabetic agents should be closely monitored for signs indicating changes in diabetic control when therapy with progestins is instituted or discontinued. [6266] Topiramate: (Major) Women taking both estrogens and topiramate should report breakthrough bleeding to their prescribers. If used for contraception, an alternate or additional form of contraception should be considered in patients prescribed topiramate, especially for patients receiving topiramate doses greater than 200 mg per day. Higher-dose hormonal regimens may be indicated where acceptable or applicable. The alternative or additional contraceptive agent may need to be continued for 1 month after discontinuation of topiramate. Patients taking these hormones for other indications may need to be monitored for reduced clinical effect while on topiramate, with dose adjustments made based on clinical efficacy. Concurrent administration may increase estrogen elimination. [28378] (Moderate) Topiramate may reduce the efficacy of progestins used in contraception or hormone replacement therapies. Reduced contraceptive efficacy can occur even in the absence of breakthrough bleeding. Dosages of hormone replacement products may need adjustment. Different or additional forms of contraception (e.g., non-hormonal contraceptives) may also be needed. In a pharmacokinetic interaction study, a combination oral contraceptive (containing norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol) administered with only topiramate at doses of 50 to 200 mg/day did not result in clinically significant alterations of AUC for either component of the oral contraceptive. Norethindrone pharmacokinetics were not significantly affected. Pregnancy has been reported in patients who are using hormonal-containing contraceptives and hepatic enzyme inducers. [22005] [28378] [33941] [48201] [57046] [57048] [57588] [57648] Toremifene: (Major) The use of estrogens, including oral contraceptives, with toremifene is controversial and is generally considered contraindicated in most, but not all, circumstances. The use of estrogens may aggravate conditions for which toremifene is prescribed. Toremifene exerts its effects by blocking estrogen receptors. Since toremifene and estrogens are pharmacological opposites, they are not usually given concurrently. [2786] Tramadol; Acetaminophen: (Moderate) Monitor for estrogen-related adverse effects during concomitant acetaminophen and ethinyl estradiol use. Acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. [41929] Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Tranexamic Acid: (Contraindicated) Tranexamic acid is contraindicated in women who are using combination hormonal contraception containing an estrogen and a progestin. Use with other estrogens is also not recommended. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of prothrombin and factors VII, VIII, IX, and X and decrease antithrombin III; estrogens also increase norepinephrine-induced platelet aggregability. A positive relationship of estrogens to thromboembolic disease has been demonstrated, and the US FDA has suggested class labeling of combined OCs and non-oral combination contraceptives in accordance with this data. OC products containing >= 50-mcg ethinyl estradiol are associated with the greatest risk of thromboembolic complications. Therefore, do not coadminister estrogens, combined hormonal oral contraceptives, or non-oral combination contraceptives together with tranexamic acid. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic agent, and concomitant use can further exacerbate the thrombotic risk associated with these estrogen-containing hormonal products; in post-market use of tranexamic acid, cases of thromboembolic events have been reported, with cases occurring in those patients concomitantly receiving combined hormonal contraceptives containing both an estrogen and a progestin. [37613] [50666] [7622] Trastuzumab; Hyaluronidase: (Minor) Estrogens, when given in large systemic doses, may render tissues partially resistant to the action of hyaluronidase. Patients receiving these medications may require larger amounts of hyaluronidase for equivalent dispersing effect. [28946] [41365] [41366] Triamcinolone: (Moderate) Monitor for corticosteroid-related adverse events if corticosteroids are used with estrogens. Concurrent use may increase the exposure of corticosteroids. Estrogens may decrease the hepatic clearance of corticosteroids thereby increasing their effect. [29779] [54049] Tricyclic antidepressants: (Minor) The oxidative metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants may be decreased by ethinyl estradiol. Increased antidepressant serum concentrations may occur. Ethinyl estradiol has been reported to intensify side effects from imipramine. Patients should be monitored for increased tricyclic antidepressant side effects if an estrogen is added. Current evidence indicates that this interaction may be related to the estrogen dosage, with larger doses (i.e., >= 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol/day) causing a more significant interaction. [4718] Trimethoprim: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Tucatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for an increase in estrogenic-related adverse reactions (e.g., nausea, breast tenderness) if coadministration of ethinyl estradiol with tucatinib is necessary. Ethinyl estradiol is a CYP3A4 substrate and tucatinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. [40617] [57085] [65295] Ulipristal: (Major) Avoid concurrent use of ulipristal and progestin-containing hormonal contraceptives or other progestins. Hormonal contraceptives may be started or resumed no sooner than 5 days after ulipristal treatment. Also, a reliable barrier method of contraception should be used during the same menstrual cycle in which ulipristal was administered (until the next menstrual period). Progestin-containing contraceptives may impair the ability of ulipristal to delay ovulation. Ulipristal may reduce the effectiveness of progestin-containing hormonal contraceptives by competitively binding at the progesterone receptor. [41569] [50623] Ursodeoxycholic Acid, Ursodiol: (Minor) Estrogens and combined hormonal and oral contraceptives increase hepatic cholesterol secretion, and encourage cholesterol gallstone formation, and hence may counteract the effectiveness of ursodeoxycholic acid, ursodiol. [28078] [28082] Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium: (Moderate) Monitor serum valproic acid concentrations and patient clinical response when adding or discontinuing estrogen-containing therapy. Estrogen may increase the clearance of valproic acid, possibly leading to decreased efficacy of valproic acid and increased seizure frequency. [44735] Vancomycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Verapamil: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients. [805] Vincristine Liposomal: (Moderate) In vitro, ethinyl estradiol is a mild CYP3A4 inhibitor, and vincristine is a CYP3A substrate. Theoretically, coadministration could increase exposure to vincristine; monitor patients for increased side effects if these drugs are given together. [29472] [47343] [57085] Vincristine: (Moderate) In vitro, ethinyl estradiol is a mild CYP3A4 inhibitor, and vincristine is a CYP3A substrate. Theoretically, coadministration could increase exposure to vincristine; monitor patients for increased side effects if these drugs are given together. [29472] [47343] [57085] Vonoprazan; Amoxicillin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] Vonoprazan; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. [28482] [28509] (Moderate) It would be prudent to recommend alternative or additional contraception when oral contraceptives (OCs) are used in conjunction with antibiotics. It was previously thought that antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of OCs containing estrogens due to stimulation of metabolism or a reduction in enterohepatic circulation via changes in GI flora. One retrospective study reviewed the literature to determine the effects of oral antibiotics on the pharmacokinetics of contraceptive estrogens and progestins, and also examined clinical studies in which the incidence of pregnancy with OCs and antibiotics was reported. It was concluded that the antibiotics ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, doxycycline, metronidazole, ofloxacin, roxithromycin, temafloxacin, and tetracycline did not alter plasma concentrations of OCs. Antituberculous drugs (e.g., rifampin) were the only agents associated with OC failure and pregnancy. Based on the study results, these authors recommended that back-up contraception may not be necessary if OCs are used reliably during oral antibiotic use. Another review concurred with these data, but noted that individual patients have been identified who experienced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of combined OC components and who appeared to ovulate; the agents most often associated with these changes were rifampin, tetracyclines, and penicillin derivatives. These authors concluded that because females most at risk for OC failure or noncompliance may not be easily identified and the true incidence of such events may be under-reported, and given the serious consequence of unwanted pregnancy, that recommending an additional method of contraception during short-term antibiotic use may be justified. During long-term antibiotic administration, the risk for drug interaction with OCs is less clear, but alternative or additional contraception may be advisable in selected circumstances. Data regarding progestin-only contraceptives or for newer combined contraceptive deliveries (e.g., patches, rings) are not available. In addition, drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects; the progestin may increase serum potassium. Consider monitoring serum potassium concentrations during the first month of dosing in high-risk patients who take strong CYP3A4 inhibitors long-term and concomitantly. Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors include clarithromycin. [28238] [28482] [28509] [31698] [34329] Vorapaxar: (Moderate) Use caution during concurrent use of vorapaxar and ethinyl estradiol. Vorapaxar is a CYP3A4 substrate. Ethinyl estradiol inhibits CYP3A4 in vitro. Increased serum concentrations of vorapaxar are possible when vorapaxar is coadministered with ethinyl estradiol. Increased exposure to vorapaxar may increase the risk of bleeding complications. [47343] [4744] [57151] Voriconazole: (Moderate) Voriconazole may increase plasma concentrations of ethinyl estradiol by inhibiting CYP3A4 , resulting in estrogen-related side effects such as nausea and breast tenderness. Ethinyl estradiol, when combined with norethindrone, may also increase the Cmax and AUC of voriconazole. [27982] [29036] [41929] [42851] Warfarin: (Major) Estrogen-based hormone replacement therapies and contraceptive methods are generally contraindicated in patients with thromboembolic risk. However, per ACOG guidelines, in select patients the benefits of such contraception may outweigh the risks, as long as appropriate anticoagulant therapy is utilized. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) may inhibit CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, which can rarely influence warfarin pharmacokinetics and the INR value. Isolated case reports have noted altered responses to warfarin in patients receiving combined hormonal contraceptives. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of prothrombin and factors VII, VIII, IX, and X and decrease antithrombin III; estrogens also increase norepinephrine-induced platelet aggregability. A positive relationship of estrogen-containing OCs to thromboembolic disease has been demonstrated. OC products containing 50-mcg or more of ethinyl estradiol are associated with the greatest risk of thromboembolic complications. The addition of certain progestins may influence thromboembolic risks. A positive relationship between estrogen-based HRT and the risk of thromboembolic disease has also been demonstrated in the Women's Health Initiative Trials. Estrogen-based HRT products are generally contraindicated in patients with a current or past history of stroke, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, coronary thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, thromboembolic disease (including pulmonary embolism and DVT), or valvular heart disease with complications. If concurrent use of an estrogen-based product cannot be avoided, carefully monitor for signs and symptoms of thromboembolic complications. If thromboembolic events occur, discontinue the HRT regimen. Estrogen-based HRT is generally not expected to significantly alter the INR or to affect the metabolism of warfarin. Dosage adjustment of warfarin in a woman taking HRT should be based on the prothrombin time or INR value. [17825] [28549] [29140] [48201] [50666] [51295] [66564] Zolmitriptan: (Minor) Retrospective data indicate that mean plasma concentrations of zolmitriptan were generally higher in females taking oral contraceptives (e.g., those containing ethinyl estradiol) compared to those not taking oral contraceptives. Mean Cmax and AUC of zolmitriptan were found to be higher by 30% and 50%, respectively, and Tmax was delayed by one-half hour in females taking oral contraceptives. The effect of zolmitriptan on the pharmacokinetics of oral contraceptives has not been studied. The clinical significance of these interactions has not been established. Hormone replacement therapy regimens (HRT) are not thought to interact, based on data with other 'triptans' with similar pharmacokinetic interactions with oral contraceptives. [28445] Zonisamide: (Minor) Zonisamide is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ethinyl estradiol is a substrate of P-gp. There is theoretical potential for zonisamide to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates. Use caution when starting or stopping zonisamide or changing the zonisamide dosage in patients also receiving drugs which are P-gp substrates. [28843]
    Revision Date: 02/02/2023, 02:26:00 AM

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    Monitoring Parameters

    • pap smear
    • pelvic exam

    US Drug Names

    • Estarylla
    • Mili
    • MONO-LINYAH
    • MonoNessa
    • Norgestimate/Ethinyl Estradiol
    • Ortho Tri-Cyclen
    • Ortho Tri-Cyclen Lo
    • Ortho-Cyclen
    • Previfem
    • Sprintec
    • Tri-Estarylla
    • TRI-LINYAH
    • Tri-Lo-Estarylla
    • Tri-Lo-Marzia
    • Tri-Lo-Mili
    • Tri-Lo-Sprintec
    • Tri-Mili
    • Trinessa
    • Trinessa Lo
    • Tri-Previfem
    • Tri-Sprintec
    • Tri-VyLibra
    • VyLibra
    ;