Window of opportunity for respiratory oscillometry: A review of recent research

Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

Oct 1, 2023

The Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT), performed during tidal breathing, is free from patient-dependent factors that may influence the results. Different lung diseases show different patterns of change in FOT...

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Science of the Total Environment | Toxicity of fresh and aged anthropogenic smoke particles emitted from different burning conditions

Sept 20, 2023

Smoke from burning conditions undergoes photochemical aging, which alters its chemical composition. Oxygenated VOC emissions increase while particle-bound PAHs degrade during photochemical aging. PAH degradation is more pronounced in flaming smoke parti...

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eBioMedicine | Environmental and occupational bronchiolitis obliterans: new reality

Sept 1, 2023

Environmental/occupational bronchiolitis obliterans often present with an indolent evolution of respiratory symptoms without a history of high-level, acute exposure to airborne toxins. Exertional dyspnea is the most common symptom...

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Clinics in Geriatric Medicine | Caring for Veterans with Serious Illness

Aug 1, 2023

US Veterans comprise approximately 7% of the population. About half of these Veterans seek care within the Department of Veterans Affairs. The other half receive their health-care services in the wider community...

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Journal of Hazardous Materials | Physicochemical and toxicological properties of wood smoke particulate matter as a function of wood species and combustion condition

Jan 5, 2023

Researchers have conducted a study on the impact of wood smoke on environmental health. They examined three different hardwoods – oak, cherry, and mesquite – for flaming combustion, smoldering, and incomplete combustion. The study found that the organic...

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Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America | Inhalant and Additional Mucosal-Related Environmental Risks for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Nov 1, 2022

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs as the result of a complex interplay of environmental factors in a genetically susceptible individual. There is considerable evidence that the lungs may serve as an initial site of tolerance loss in the generation of RA...

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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Risk: The Role of Environmental Factors

Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America | November 1, 2022 | Source: ScienceDirect

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a complex etiology that includes potential environmental triggers. The "multi-hit" hypothesis suggests that SLE may occur sequentially due to environmental factors such as infections, diet, respirable exposures, organic pollutants, heavy metals, and ultraviolet radiation. This review highlights the potential risks associated with these environmental factors in the development of SLE.

Mosaic Attenuation Pattern

Radiologic Clinics of North America | November 1, 2022 | Source: ClinicalKey

The mosaic attenuation pattern can be seen on high-resolution computed tomography and has various causes, including small airways disease and vascular causes. Ancillary CT findings and clinical history help to narrow the differential diagnosis, and biopsy is rarely needed for a definitive diagnosis.

Short-term PM exposure and social stress cause pulmonary and cardiac dysfunction

Toxicology Letters | November 1, 2022 | Source: ScienceDirect

A new study has found that preclinical exposure to concentrated air particulate matter and stress in mice leads to reduced pulmonary and cardiac function. Military personnel are often exposed to burning pits of debris that emit toxic fumes containing high levels of particulate matter. The study found that exposure to particulate matter induces an inflammatory phenotype, similar to cardiac dysfunction induced by other environmental stressors. The study also found that mice exposed to PM had increased capillary density in the right ventricle and reduced inflammatory markers in both ventricles, indicating a compensatory anti-inflammatory response.

Lifetime infertility and environmental, chemical, and hazardous exposures among female and male US veterans

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | November 1, 2022 | Source: ClinicalKey

A study has found that infertility in veterans is associated with exposure to environmental, chemical, and hazardous materials during military service. The study surveyed 3,018 veterans, of whom 49.6% of women and 51.7% of men met the definition of infertility. The study found that anthrax vaccine, sulfur fires, extreme heat, petrochemicals, PCBs, and asbestos were associated with infertility, and that veterans reporting infertility had a higher number of total exposures. Further research is needed to investigate the possible link between veteran exposures and reproductive health.

Self-reported respiratory outcomes associated with blast exposure in post 9/11 veterans

Respiratory Medicine | October 1, 2022 | Source: ClinicalKey

Blast exposure independently predicts presence of cough, wheeze, and dyspnea. Blast-exposed veterans were more likely to report respiratory symptoms than unexposed veterans. Care for injury at Landstuhl was inversely associated with reporting of all symptoms and all diagnoses.

Small airways and airspace inflammation and injury distinguish lung histopathology in deployed military personnel from healthy and diseased lungs

Human Pathology | June 1, 2022 | Source: ClinicalKey

Military deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan increases the risk for lung disease, according to a new study. Biopsies of symptomatic deployers were compared to diseased and normal controls, and a novel semiquantitative electronic histologic scoring system was used. Findings in deployers overlapped most with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and abnormalities were more common in the lower lobe than upper lobe biopsies. The study found that several deployers had bronchiolitis, though this finding was substantially less frequent than in OB cases, and moderate/severe emphysema was noted in 46.2% of symptomatic deployers, of whom nearly half (46.7%) were never smokers.

Military exposures and lung cancer in United States Veterans

Seminars in Oncology | June 1, 2022 | Source: ClinicalKey

Lung cancer screening begins at age 50, with yearly low dose computed tomography (LDCT) scans until age 80. Veterans serving from World War II to the Gulf War are now at the age where LDCT is recommended. The additional risk of lung cancer due to military exposure history is unclear.

Controversies and challenges in lung cancer screening

Seminars in Oncology | June 1, 2022 | Source: ClinicalKey

Two large randomized controlled trials have shown mortality benefit from lung cancer screening (LCS) in high-risk groups. Updated guidelines by the United State Preventative Service Task Force in 2020 will allow for inclusion of more patients who are at high risk of developing lung cancer and benefit from screening. The advantage of LDCT is its high sensitivity for detecting pulmonary nodules while using approximately five times less radiation compared with conventional CT.

Sustained Club Cell Injury in Mice Induces Histopathologic Features of Deployment-Related Constrictive Bronchiolitis

American Journal of Pathology, The | March 1, 2022 | Source: ClinicalKey

The study investigates the pathogenesis of Deployment-Related Constrictive Bronchiolitis (DRCB) in soldiers deployed to Southwest Asia. The study found that sustained club cell injury in mice led to chronic peribronchiolar fibrosis and the accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages. The study also found that alveolar macrophages contribute to the development of CB and that depletion of alveolar macrophages in mice ameliorated CB. The study suggests that sustained club cell injury is implicated in the development of DRCB and provides potential biomarkers and treatment targets for the disorder.

The Millennium Cohort Study: The first 20 years of research dedicated to understanding the long-term health of US Service Members and Veterans

Annals of Epidemiology | March 1, 2022 | Source: ClinicalKey

The Study will continue to foster stakeholder relationships such that research findings inform and guide policy initiatives and health promotion efforts. Summarize: Conclusions. Summaries: Findings will inform policy initiatives. Conclusions: Research findings will guide and inform policy efforts and efforts to improve health.

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