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Jan.14.2021

Albuterol

Indications/Dosage

Labeled

  • asthma exacerbation
  • bronchospasm
  • chronic bronchitis
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • emphysema
  • exercise-induced bronchospasm prophylaxis

Off-Label

  • chronic lung disease (CLD)
  • hyperkalemia
† Off-label indication

For asthma exacerbation (e.g., primary care or acute care management)

Oral Inhalation dosage (inhalation aerosol; e.g., ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA)

Adults

4 to 10 oral inhalations of 90 mcg/actuation (total: 360 to 900 mcg) every 20 minutes during the first hour for mild to moderate exacerbations. After the first hour, the dose required may vary from 4 to 10 oral inhalations (360 to 900 mcg) every 3 to 4 hours up to 6 to 10 oral inhalations (540 to 900 mcg) every 1 to 2 hours, or more often.[64807]

Children and Adolescents 6 years and older

4 to 10 oral inhalations of 90 mcg/actuation (total: 360 to 900 mcg) every 20 minutes for the first hour for mild to moderate exacerbations. After the first hour, the dose required may vary from 4 to 10 oral inhalations (360 to 900 mcg) every 3 to 4 hours up to 6 to 10 oral inhalations (540 to 900 mcg) every 1 to 2 hours, or more often.[64807]

Children 1 to 5 years

2 to 6 oral inhalations of 90 mcg/actuation (total: 180 to 540 mcg) every 20 minutes for the first hour, then 2 to 3 oral inhalations (180 to 270 mcg) every hour as needed. Delivery should occur with a spacer and a mask.[64807]

Infants

2 to 6 oral inhalations of 90 mcg/actuation (total: 180 to 540 mcg) every 20 minutes for first hour, then 2 to 3 oral inhalations (180 to 270 mcg) every hour as needed. Delivery should occur with a spacer and a mask.[64807]

Nebulized Inhalation dosage (solution for nebulization; various concentrations)

Adults

2.5 mg via nebulizer every 20 minutes for the first hour for mild to moderate exacerbation. After the first hour, 2.5 mg every 3 to 4 hours and up to 2.5 mg every 1 to 2 hours, or more often.[64807] Typical dose: 2.5 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily.[49953] [51872]

Adolescents

2.5 mg via nebulizer every 20 minutes for the first hour for mild to moderate exacerbation. After the first hour, 2.5 mg every 3 to 4 hours up to 2.5 mg every 1 to 2 hours, or more often.[64807] Typical dose: 2.5 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily.[49953] [51872]

Children 6 to 12 years

2.5 mg via nebulizer every 20 minutes for the first hour for mild to moderate exacerbation. After the first hour, 2.5 mg every 3 to 4 hours up to 2.5 mg every 1 to 2 hours, or more often.[64807] Typical dose range: 0.63 mg to 1.25 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily. If the child weighs at least 15 kg: 2.5 mg may be given via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily if needed and this dose may be more appropriate for acute exacerbation in children 6 years and older.[43674] [49953] [51872]

Children 2 to 5 years

2.5 mg via nebulizer every 20 minutes for the first hour for acute exacerbation, with reassessment after that (further dosing not specified).[64807] Typical dose range: 0.63 mg to 1.25 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily. If the child weighs at least 15 kg: May give 2.5 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily, if needed.[43674] [49953] [51872]

Infants† and Children† less than 2 years

2.5 mg via nebulizer every 20 minutes for the first hour for acute exacerbation, with reassessment after that (further dosing not specified).[64807]

For transient increase in bronchospasm (e.g., episodic wheezing) as asthma reliever therapy

Oral Inhalation dosage (inhalation aerosol; e.g., ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA)

Adults

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation every 4 to 6 hours as needed for bronchospasm. In some patients, 90 mcg (1 actuation) every 4 hours may be sufficient. Max: 12 actuations/day (1,080 mcg/day).[28532] [31823] [49951]

Children and Adolescents 4 years and older

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation every 4 to 6 hours as needed for bronchospasm. In some patients, 90 mcg (1 actuation) every 4 hours may be sufficient. Max: 12 actuations/day (1,080 mcg/day).[28532] [31823] [49951]

Oral Inhalation dosage (inhalation powder; e.g., ProAir RespiClick, ProAir Digihaler)

Adults

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation every 4 to 6 hours as needed for bronchospasm. In some patients, 90 mcg (1 actuation) every 4 hours may be sufficient. Max: 12 actuations/day (1,080 mcg/day).[59350] [64470]

Children and Adolescents 4 years and older

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation every 4 to 6 hours as needed for bronchospasm. In some patients, 90 mcg (1 actuation) every 4 hours may be sufficient. Max: 12 actuations/day (1,080 mcg/day).[59350] [64470]

Nebulized Inhalation dosage (solution for nebulization; various product concentrations)

Adults

2.5 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily as needed. Usual Max: 4 doses/day (10 mg/day).[49953] [51872]

Adolescents

2.5 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily as needed. Usual Max: 4 doses/day (10 mg/day).[49953] [51872]

Children 6 to 12 years

0.63 mg or 1.25 mg via nebulizer 3 or 4 times daily as needed. Those with more severe asthma (baseline FEV1 less than 60% predicted), weight more than 40 kg, or patients 11 to 12 years of age may achieve a better initial response with the 1.25 mg dose. Children weighing at least 15 kg can receive up to 2.5 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily.[43674] [51872] [49953]

Children 2 to 5 years

0.63 mg or 1.25 mg via nebulizer 3 or 4 times daily as needed. Those with more severe asthma (baseline FEV1 less than 60% predicted), may achieve a better initial response with the 1.25 mg dose. Children weighing at least 15 kg can receive up to 2.5 mg via nebulizer 3 to 4 times daily if needed.[43674] [51872] [49953]

Oral dosage (oral solution or syrup)

Adults

2 to 4 mg PO 3 to 4 times daily. Start with a 2 mg dose in the geriatric adult. If adequate response not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution, up to 8 mg PO 4 times daily. Max: 32 mg/day.[44003] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Adolescents 15 to 17 years

2 to 4 mg PO 3 to 4 times daily. If adequate response not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution to 8 mg PO 4 times daily. Max: 32 mg/day.[44003] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Children and Adolescents 6 to 14 years

2 mg PO 3 to 4 times per day. If an adequate response is not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution. Max: 24 mg/day.[44003] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Children 2 to 5 years

0.1 mg/kg/dose PO 3 times per day. If an adequate response is not obtained, may gradually increase, up to 0.2 mg/kg/dose PO 3 times per day. Max: 12 mg/day.[44003] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Infants† and Children less than 2 years†

Safety and efficacy have not been established; not FDA-approved; 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg/dose PO every 8 hours has been used in neonates and young children.[51897] [44003]

Oral dosage (immediate-release tablets)

Adults

2 to 4 mg PO 3 to 4 times daily. Start with 2 mg per dose in the geriatric patient. If adequate response not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution to 8 mg PO 4 times daily. Max: 32 mg/day.[44010] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Adolescents

2 to 4 mg PO 3 to 4 times per day. If an adequate response is not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution. Max: 32 mg/day.[44010] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Children 6 to 12 years

2 mg PO 3 to 4 times per day. If an adequate response is not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution. Max: 24 mg/day.[44010] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Oral dosage (extended-release tablets)

Adults

4 to 8 mg ER PO every 12 hours. Start with 4 mg per dose in the geriatric patient. If an adequate response is not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution. Max: 32 mg/day. DOSE CONVERSION: 2 mg immediate-release PO every 6 hours = 4 mg extended-release PO every 12 hours.[44002] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Adolescents

4 to 8 mg ER PO every 12 hours. If an adequate response is not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution. Max: 32 mg/day. DOSE CONVERSION: 2 mg immediate-release PO every 6 hours = 4 mg extended-release PO every 12 hours.[44002] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

Children 6 to 12 years

4 mg ER PO every 12 hours. If an adequate response is not obtained, dose may be increased gradually with caution. Max: 24 mg/day. DOSE CONVERSION: 2 mg immediate-release PO every 6 hours = 4 mg extended-release PO every 12 hours.[44002] Guidelines recommend against the use of oral short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) due to the slow onset of action and increased risk for side effects. Use inhaled SABAs for acute bronchospasm; do not use oral agents.[66299] [64807]

For the adjunctive emergency acute treatment of hyperkalemia†

Oral inhalation dosage (nebulized solution)

Adults†

Single doses of 10 to 20 mg have been administered. K+ concentrations begin to fall within 30 minutes of administration, and may remain depressed up to 300 minutes when albuterol is nebulized.[30591] Inhaled short acting beta-agonists treat hyperkalemia through beta-adrenergic stimulation of cellular potassium (K+) uptake. However, it is a temporary adjunctive measure. Adjuvant or alternative therapy is warranted for patients experiencing electrocardiographic (ECG) changes or significantly elevated serum potassium concentrations.

Children and Adolescents weighing 25 kg or more

5 mg/dose via oral inhalation was effective in a small study of pediatric patients (5 to 18 years of age) with end stage renal failure (n = 11). Doses were repeated every 2 hours as needed.[30593] Adjuvant or alternative therapy is warranted for patients experiencing electrocardiographic (ECG) changes or significantly elevated serum potassium concentrations.

Children weighing less than 25 kg

2.5 mg/dose via oral inhalation was effective in a small study of pediatric patients (5 to 18 years of age) with end stage renal failure (n = 11). Doses were repeated every 2 hours as needed.[30593] Adjuvant or alternative therapy is warranted for patients experiencing electrocardiographic (ECG) changes or significantly elevated serum potassium concentrations.

Infants

Although not specifically studied in this population, nebulized albuterol 2.5 mg in children weighing less than 25 kg every 2 hours was effective in pediatric end stage renal failure patients.[30593] Smaller doses for younger infants may be necessary. A dose of 400 mcg every 2 hours was effective in lowering serum potassium concentrations to less than 5 mmol/L in mechanically ventilated newborns weighing less than 2,000 grams.[30594] Adjuvant or alternative therapy is warranted for patients experiencing electrocardiographic changes or significantly elevated serum potassium concentrations.

Neonates

400 mcg via oral inhalation administered every 2 hours was effective in a study of mechanically ventilated neonates weighing less than 2,000 grams (n = 19). Doses were repeated every 2 hours until serum potassium concentrations fell to less than 5 mmol/L, the patient experienced adverse effects, or the maximum of 12 doses was reached. Adjuvant or alternative therapy is warranted for patients experiencing electrocardiographic (ECG) changes or significantly elevated serum potassium concentrations (e.g., more than 7.5 mmol/L).[30594]

For exercise-induced bronchospasm prophylaxis

Oral Inhalation dosage (inhalation aerosol; e.g., ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA)

Adults

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation, administered 15 to 30 minutes before exercise.[28532] [31823] [49951] A controller agent (e.g., daily inhaled corticosteroid) is recommended to be used along with as-needed and pre-exercise SABAs like albuterol.[56291] [64807]

Children and Adolescents 4 to 17 years

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation, administered 15 to 30 minutes before exercise.[28532] [31823] [49951] A controller agent (e.g., daily inhaled corticosteroid) is recommended to be used along with as-needed and pre-exercise SABAs like albuterol.[56291] [64807]

Children† 1 to 3 years

90 to 180 mcg (1 to 2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation, administered 15 minutes (range, 5 to 20 minutes) before exercise.[56291]

Oral Inhalation dosage (inhalation powder; ProAir RespiClick, ProAir Digihaler)

Adults

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation, administered 15 to 30 minutes before exercise.[59350] [64470] A controller agent (e.g., daily inhaled corticosteroid) is recommended to be used along with as-needed and pre-exercise SABAs like albuterol.[56291] [64807]

Children and Adolescents 4 to 17 years

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation, administered 15 to 30 minutes before exercise.[59350] [64470] A controller agent (e.g., daily inhaled corticosteroid) is recommended to be used along with as-needed and pre-exercise SABAs like albuterol.[56291] [64807]

For the treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (e.g., chronic bronchitis or emphysema)

Oral Inhalation dosage (inhalation aerosol or powder; e.g., Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA, ProAir HFA, ProAir Digihaler)

Adults

180 mcg (2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via oral inhalation every 4 to 6 hours as needed for symptoms. In some patients, 90 mcg (1 actuation) every 4 hours may be sufficient. FDA-approved Max: 12 actuations/day.[28532] [31823] [49951] [59350] [64470] Optimal dosing for acute COPD exacerbation is not established; adjust dose according to clinical symptoms or the development of adverse effects; higher or more frequent dosing may be needed.[55976] According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines, inhaled albuterol may be used as first-line therapy in Group A and may also be used in Groups B, C, and D for additional symptom control. Short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) are preferred therapy for acute COPD exacerbation, used with or without a short-acting anticholinergic. No significant differences in FEV1 have been demonstrated between metered-dose inhalers (with or without a spacer) and nebulizers for SABAs in clinical trials; nebulizers may be more convenient for patients who are more acutely ill.[63765]

Nebulized Inhalation dosage (solution for nebulization; various concentrations)

Adults

2.5 mg via nebulizer every 6 to 8 hours as needed. FDA-approved labeling Max: 4 doses/day.[43674] [49953] Optimal dosing for a COPD exacerbation is not established; adjust dose according to clinical symptoms or the development of adverse effects. A nebulized albuterol dose of 5 mg every 4 hours has been used, as well as a regimen of 2.5 mg given every 20 minutes for 2 hours.[55976] [56006] [63765] According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines for COPD, inhaled albuterol may be used as first-line therapy in Group A and may also be used in Groups B, C, and D for additional symptom control. Short-acting beta-2 agonists (SABAs) are preferred therapy for the treatment of acute COPD exacerbation, used with or without a short-acting anticholinergic.[63765] No significant differences in FEV1 have been demonstrated between metered-dose inhalers (with or without a spacer) and nebulizers for SABAs in clinical trials; nebulizers may be more convenient for patients that are more acutely ill.[63765]

Oral dosage (immediate-release tablets, oral solution or syrup)

Adults

2 to 4 mg PO every 6 to 8 hours. Geriatric patients should receive 2 mg PO every 6 to 8 hours initially. Maximum: 32 mg/day PO.[44003] [44010] Use not recommended by guidelines; inhaled bronchodilators are preferred.[63765]

Oral dosage (extended-release tablets)

Adults

4 to 8 mg PO every 12 hours (Maximum: 32 mg/day PO).[44002] Use not recommended by guidelines; inhaled bronchodilators are preferred.[63765]

For adjunctive treatment of neonatal respiratory illness, such as those with suspected airway reactivity†, bronchopulmonary dysplasia†, or chronic lung disease (CLD)†

Nebulized Inhalation dosage (solution for nebulization; various concentrations)

Neonates†

1.25 to 2.5 mg via nebulizer was the most common dose reported in a survey of 68 academic medical center neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). While significantly less common, weight-based dosing of 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg/dose was also reported by some NICUs as their usual dose.[51912] Published reports describe a wide range of effective doses; 0.2 to 5 mg/dose and 0.02 to 0.2 mg/kg/dose administered every 4 to 8 hours have been reported to improve pulmonary compliance and/or resistance in ventilator-dependent neonates.[51895] [51908] [51909] [51910] [51911] The optimal frequency of administration has not been clearly defined in the neonatal population. Of note, significantly larger doses of albuterol are used in nebulization when compared to administration with metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) due to the inefficiency of nebulized drug delivery.[51901]

Oral Inhalation dosage (inhalation aerosol)

Neonates†

90 to 180 mcg (1 to 2 actuations of 90 mcg/actuation) via the inspiratory limb of the mechanical ventilator circuit appeared to improve pulmonary mechanics in ventilator-dependent neonates.[51908] [51913] [51914] [51915] In a survey of 68 academic medical center neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), 95% reported 1 to 2 actuations as the average dose used.[51912] Frequency of administration has not been clearly defined in the neonatal population. Of note, MDIs with inline spacers have demonstrated superior drug delivery when compared to jet nebulizers in simulated neonatal lung models.[51901]

Oral dosage (oral solution or syrup)

Neonates†

Limited data. 0.15 mg/kg/dose enterally every 8 hours for 96 hours improved pulmonary resistance in ventilator-dependent premature neonates at risk for developing chronic lung disease (n = 30). Major cardiovascular side effects did not occur; heart and respiratory rate increases were deemed clinically unimportant by investigators.[51897]

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

Maximum Dosage Limits

  • Adults

    32 mg/day PO for syrup and tablets; FDA-approved labeling for inhaler recommends not exceeding 12 puffs/day; FDA-approved labeling for nebulizer solution for oral inhalation recommends not exceeding 4 doses/day or 10 mg/day (0.083% or 0.5% nebulizer solution), 2.5 mg/day (0.63 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution), and 5 mg/day (1.25 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution). Higher maximum dosages for inhalation products have been recommended in NAEPP guidelines for acute exacerbations of asthma.

  • Geriatric

    32 mg/day PO for syrup and tablets; FDA-approved labeling for inhaler recommends not exceeding 12 puffs/day; FDA-approved labeling for nebulizer solution for oral inhalation recommends not exceeding 4 doses/day or 10 mg/day (0.083% or 0.5% nebulizer solution), 2.5 mg/day (0.63 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution), and 5 mg/day (1.25 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution). Higher maximum dosages for inhalation products have been recommended in NAEPP guidelines for acute exacerbations of asthma.

  • Adolescents

    15 to 17 years: 32 mg/day PO for syrup and tablets; FDA-approved labeling for inhaler recommends not exceeding 12 puffs/day; FDA-approved labeling for nebulizer solution for oral inhalation recommends not exceeding 4 doses/day or 10 mg/day (0.083% or 0.5% nebulizer solution), 2.5 mg/day (0.63 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution), and 5 mg/day (1.25 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution). Higher maximum dosages for inhalation products have been recommended in NAEPP guidelines for acute exacerbations of asthma.

    13 to 14 years: 24 mg/day PO for syrup; 32 mg/day PO for tablets; FDA-approved labeling for inhaler recommends not exceeding 12 puffs/day; FDA-approved labeling for nebulizer solution for oral inhalation recommends not exceeding 4 doses/day or 10 mg/day (0.083% or 0.5% nebulizer solution), 2.5 mg/day (0.63 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution), and 5 mg/day (1.25 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution). Higher maximum dosages for inhalation products have been recommended in NAEPP guidelines for acute exacerbations of asthma.

  • Children

    6 to 12 years: 24 mg/day PO for syrup and tablets; FDA-approved labeling for inhaler recommends not exceeding 12 puffs/day; FDA-approved labeling for nebulizer solution for oral inhalation recommends not exceeding 4 doses/day or 10 mg/day (0.083% or 0.5% nebulizer solution), 2.5 mg/day (0.63 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution), and 5 mg/day (1.25 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution). Higher maximum dosages for inhalation products have been recommended in NAEPP guidelines for acute exacerbations of asthma.

    4 to 5 years: 0.6 mg/kg/day PO (Max: 12 mg/day PO) for albuterol syrup; FDA-approved labeling for inhaler recommends not exceeding 12 puffs/day; FDA-approved labeling for nebulizer solution for oral inhalation recommends not exceeding 4 doses/day or 10 mg/day (0.083% or 0.5% nebulizer solution), 2.5 mg/day (0.63 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution), and 5 mg/day (1.25 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution). Higher maximum dosages for inhalation products have been recommended in NAEPP guidelines for acute exacerbations of asthma.

    2 to 3 years: 0.6 mg/kg/day PO (Max: 12 mg/day PO) for albuterol syrup; FDA-approved labeling for nebulizer solution for oral inhalation recommends not exceeding 4 doses/day or 10 mg/day (0.083% or 0.5% nebulizer solution), 2.5 mg/day (0.63 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution), and 5 mg/day (1.25 mg/3 mL nebulizer solution). Higher maximum dosages for inhalation products have been recommended in NAEPP guidelines for acute exacerbations of asthma.

    1 year: Safety and efficacy have not been established; nebulizer inhalation maximum dependent on patient response and formulation used.

  • Infants

    Safety and efficacy have not been established; nebulizer inhalation maximum dependent on patient response and formulation used.

  • Neonates

    Safety and efficacy have not been established; nebulizer inhalation maximum dependent on patient response and formulation used.

Patients with Hepatic Impairment Dosing

Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in hepatic impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

Patients with Renal Impairment Dosing

Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available. Caution may be warranted during the administration of high doses in patients with renal impairment, as renal clearance is reduced.

† Off-label indication
Revision Date: 01/14/2021, 04:17:35 PM

References

28532 - Proventil HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of MERCK & CO., INC.; 2017 Sept.30591 - Wong SL, Maltz HC. Albuterol for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33:103-6. Review.30593 - McClure RJ, Prasad VK, Brocklebank JT. Treatment of hyperkalaemia using intravenous and nebulised salbutamol. Arch Dis Child 1994;70:126-8.30594 - Singh BS, Sadiq HF, Noguchi A, et al. Efficacy of albuterol inhalation in treatment of hyperkalemia in premature neonates. J Pediatr 2002;141:16-20.31823 - ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Miami, FL: IVAX Laboratories; 2019 Feb.43674 - Albuterol sulfate 0.63 mg and 1.25 mg Inhalation Solution package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2018 May.44002 - Albuterol extended-release tablet package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2006 July.44003 - Albuterol oral solution package insert. Huntsville, AL: Qualitest Pharmaceuticals; 2008 May.44010 - Albuterol tablet package insert. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Dash Pharmaceuticals LLC.; 2019 Sept.49951 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2021 Aug.49953 - Albuterol sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083% (2.5 mg/3 mL) package insert. Columbia, SC: The Ritedose Corporation: 2019 Dec.51872 - Albuterol sulfate 0.5% Inhalation solution (concentrate 2.5 mg/0.5 mL). Amityville, NY: HiTech Pharmacal; 2018 Jan.51895 - Mhanna MJ, Patel JS, Patel S. The effects of racemic albuterol versus levalbuterol in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Pulmonol 2009;44(8):778-83.51897 - Stefano JL, Bhutani VK, Fox WW. A randomized placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral albuterol on pulmonary mechanics in ventilator-dependent infants at risk for developing BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol 1991;10:183-190.51901 - Lugo RA, Kenney JK, Keenan J. Albuterol delivery in a neonatal ventilated lung model: nebulization versus chlorofluorocarbon- and hydrofluoroalkane-pressurized metered dose inhalers. Pediatr Pulmonol 2001;31:247-254.51908 - Fok TF, Lam K, Ng PC. Randomised crossover trial of salbutamol aerosol delivered by metered dose inhaler, jet nebuliser, and ultrasonic nebuliser in chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998;79:F100-104.51909 - Wilkie RA, Bryan MH. Effect of bronchodilators on airway resistance in ventilator-dependent neonates with chronic lung disease. J Pediatr 1987;111:278-282.51910 - Sivakumar D, Bosque E, Goldman SL. Bronchodilator delivered by metered dose inhaler and spacer improves respiratory system compliance more than nebulizer-delivered bronchodilator in ventilated premature infants. Pediatr Pulmonol 1999;27:208-212.51911 - Rotschild A, Solimano A, Puterman M. Increased compliance in response to salbutamol in premature infants with developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 1989;115:984-991.51912 - Ballard J, Lugo RA, Salyer JW. A survey of albuterol administration practices in intubated patients in the neonatal intensive care unit. Respir Care 2002;47:31-38.51913 - Denjean A, Guimaraes H, Migdal M. Dose-related bronchodilator response to aerosolized salbutamol (albuterol) in ventilator-dependent premature infants. J Pediatr 1992;120:974-979.51914 - Pfenninger J, Aebi C. Respiratory response to salbutamol (albuterol) in ventilator-dependent infants with chronic lung disease: pressurized aerosol delivery versus intravenous injection. Intensive Care Med 1993;19:251-255.51915 - Holt WJ, Greenspan JS, Antunes MJ. Pulmonary response to an inhaled bronchodilator in chronically ventilated preterm infants with suspected airway reactivity. Respir Care 1995;40:145-151.55976 - Brulotte CA, Lang ES. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin N Am 2012;30:223-247.56006 - Emerman CL, Cydulka RK. Effect of different albuterol dosing regimens in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Emerg Med 1997;29:474-478.56291 - Parsons JP, Hallstrand TS, Mastronarde JG, et al. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline exercise induced bronchoconstriction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;187:1016-1027.59350 - ProAir Respiclick (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2020 Sept.63765 - Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2021. Retrieved 3/8/2021. Available on the World Wide Web at https://goldcopd.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/GOLD-REPORT-2021-v1.1-25Nov20_WMV.pdf64470 - ProAir Digihaler (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2018 Dec.64807 - Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2020. Available from: http://www.ginasthma.org. Accessed May 20th, 2020.66299 - Expert Panel Working Group of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) administered and coordinated National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee (NAEPPCC), et al. 2020 Focused Updates to the Asthma Management Guidelines: A Report from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020;146:1217-1270.

How Supplied

Albuterol Inhalation powder

ProAir Digihaler 90mcg/actuation Powder for Inhalation (59310-0117) (Teva Respiratory, LLC) nullProAir Digihaler 90mcg/actuation Powder for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Inhalation powder

ProAir RespiClick 90mcg/actuation Powder for Inhalation (59310-0580) (Teva Respiratory, LLC) nullProAir RespiClick 90mcg/actuation Powder for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (59772-6175) (Apothecon Inc Div Bristol Myers Squibb) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (17270-0721) (Armstrong Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Amphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (17270-0666) (Armstrong Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Amphastar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00904-5078) (Major Pharmaceuticals Inc, a Harvard Drug Group Company) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (52555-0594) (Martec Pharmaceuticals Inc) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (49502-0303) (Mylan Specialty L.P.) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (49502-0333) (Mylan Specialty L.P.) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (66267-0995) (NuCare Pharmaceuticals Inc) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00603-1004) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00677-1549) (Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00172-4390) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (50111-0801) (Teva Pharmacueticals USA) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00472-1264) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (62037-0794) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (59930-1560) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (59930-1560) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (69097-0142) (Cipla USA, Inc) nullAlbuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (72572-0014) (Civica, Inc.) null

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (68180-0963) (Lupin Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) nullAlbuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00254-1007) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) nullAlbuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (45802-0088) (Perrigo Pharmaceuticals Company) null

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (66993-0019) (Prasco Laboratories) nullAlbuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00781-7296) (Sandoz Inc. a Novartis Company) null

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00093-3174) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) nullAlbuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (59310-0579) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Proair HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (59310-0579) (Teva Respiratory, LLC) (off market)Proair HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

PROAIR HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (59310-0579) (Teva Respiratory, LLC) nullPROAIR HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Proventil 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00085-0614) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.) (off market)Proventil 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Proventil HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00085-1132) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.) (off market)Proventil HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Proventil HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00085-1132) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.) nullProventil HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Proventil HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (66758-0959) (Sandoz Inc. a Novartis Company) null

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

ReliOn Ventolin HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00173-0682) (ReliOn ) (off market)ReliOn Ventolin HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Respirol 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (58980-0108) (Stratus Pharmaceuticals Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Ventolin 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00173-0463) (GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies) (off market)Ventolin 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Ventolin 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00173-0321) (GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies) (off market)Ventolin 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Ventolin HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00173-0682) (GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies) nullVentolin HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Ventolin HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00173-0682) (GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies) null

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Ventolin HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00173-0682) (GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies) (off market)Ventolin HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol package photo

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Ventolin HFA 90mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (NOVAPLUS) (00173-0682) (GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies) (off market)

Albuterol Pressurized inhalation, suspension

Ventolin 100mcg/actuation Inhalation Aerosol (00173-7033) (GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (60687-0395) (American Health Packaging) null

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (50550-0335) (Charter Laboratories Inc) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00054-8063) (Hikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (50383-0742) (Hi-Tech Pharmacal, a subsidiary of Akorn) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (60432-0094) (Morton Grove Pharmaceuticals Inc, a subsidiary of Wockhardt, Ltd.) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00378-8270) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00378-6990) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (49502-0697) (Mylan Specialty L.P.) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00487-9501) (Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00603-1005) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (76204-0200) (Ritedose Corporation) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (66794-0001) (Rx Holdings LLC) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00781-7155) (Sandoz Inc. a Novartis Company) null

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00781-9150) (Sandoz, Inc. a Novartis Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (62947-6405) (Steripak Ltd) null

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (47335-0703) (Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00182-8010) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00172-6405) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00472-0831) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (16252-0097) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (00591-3797) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (59930-1517) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.083% Solution for Inhalation (59930-1500) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (00186-1490) (AstraZeneca LP) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (24208-0347) (Bausch Health US, LLC) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (50383-0741) (Hi-Tech Pharmacal, a subsidiary of Akorn) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (00904-7658) (Major Pharmaceuticals Inc, a Harvard Drug Group Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (49502-0105) (Mylan Specialty L.P.) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (00603-1006) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (00182-6014) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (00472-0832) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (59930-1515) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (59930-1647) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Proventil 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (00085-0208) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.) (off market)Proventil 0.5% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Accuneb 0.63mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (49502-0692) (Mylan Specialty L.P.) (off market)Accuneb 0.63mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.63mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (00378-6991) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 0.63mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.63mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (00487-0301) (Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 0.63mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.63mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (00591-3467) (Teva/Actavis US) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 0.63mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Accuneb 1.25mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (49502-0693) (Mylan Specialty L.P.) nullAccuneb 1.25mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 1.25mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (00378-6992) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 1.25mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 1.25mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (00487-9904) (Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 1.25mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 1.25mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (00591-3468) (Teva/Actavis US) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 1.25mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Albuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation (00487-9901) (Nephron Pharmaceuticals Corp) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 0.5% Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Proventil 0.083% 2.5mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation (00085-1806) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.) (off market)Proventil 0.083% 2.5mg/3ml Solution for Inhalation package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Nebulizer solution

Proventil 5mg/ml Solution for Inhalation (00085-1336) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (50383-0740) (Hi-Tech Pharmacal, a subsidiary of Akorn) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (55370-0315) (Mova Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (00378-3401) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (00603-1007) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (00603-1008) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (66993-0230) (Prasco Laboratories) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (00182-6015) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (00093-0661) (Teva Pharmaceuticals USA) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (00472-0825) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (52544-0419) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (00472-0825) (Teva/Actavis US) (off market)Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5ml Syrup (59930-1510) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5mL Syrup (70752-0102) (Quagen Pharmaceuticals LLC) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5mL Syrup (00472-0825) (Teva/Actavis US) nullAlbuterol Sulfate 2mg/5mL Syrup package photo

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg/5mL Syrup (66689-0100) (Vistapharm Inc) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral syrup

Ventolin 2mg/5ml Syrup (00173-0351) (GlaxoSmithKline Group of Companies) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (00047-0956) (Allergan USA, Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (68084-0949) (American Health Packaging) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (69238-1344) (Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (51407-0367) (Golden State Medical Supply, Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (51079-0657) (Mylan Institutional LLC ) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (00378-0255) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (75834-0273) (Nivagen Pharmaceuticals) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (66267-0010) (NuCare Pharmaceuticals Inc) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (00603-2093) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (55289-0363) (PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (64980-0442) (Rising Pharmaceuticals Inc) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (00781-1671) (Sandoz Inc. a Novartis Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (53489-0176) (Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (00677-1359) (Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (50111-0491) (Teva Pharmacueticals USA) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (69543-0290) (Virtus Pharmaceuticals) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (59930-1520) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 2mg Tablet (70710-1061) (Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (68084-0952) (American Health Packaging) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (69238-1345) (Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (51407-0368) (Golden State Medical Supply, Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (51079-0658) (Mylan Institutional LLC ) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (00378-0572) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (75834-0274) (Nivagen Pharmaceuticals) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (00603-2094) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (55289-0045) (PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (64980-0443) (Rising Pharmaceuticals Inc) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (00781-1672) (Sandoz Inc. a Novartis Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (00677-1360) (Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (53489-0177) (Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (50111-0492) (Teva Pharmacueticals USA) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (69543-0291) (Virtus Pharmaceuticals) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (59930-1530) (Warrick Pharmaceuticals Corp) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Tablet (70710-1062) (Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet

Proventil Repetabs 4mg Tablet (00085-0431) (Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Extended-Release Tablet (00378-4122) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

Albuterol Sulfate 4mg Extended-Release Tablet (68774-0400) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

Volmax 4mg Extended-Release Tablet (00451-0398) (Muro Pharmaceutical Inc) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

VoSpire ER 4mg Extended-Release Tablet (65473-0754) (Odyssey Pharmaceuticals Inc a Division of Barr Laboratories) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

VoSpire ER 4mg Extended-Release Tablet (68774-0600) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

Albuterol Sulfate 8mg Extended-Release Tablet (00378-4124) (Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.) null

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

Albuterol Sulfate 8mg Extended-Release Tablet (68774-0401) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

Volmax 8mg Extended-Release Tablet (00451-0399) (Muro Pharmaceutical Inc) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

VoSpire ER 8mg Extended-Release Tablet (65473-0758) (Odyssey Pharmaceuticals Inc a Division of Barr Laboratories) (off market)

Albuterol Sulfate Oral tablet, extended release

VoSpire ER 8mg Extended-Release Tablet (68774-0601) (Par Pharmaceuticals, an Endo Company) (off market)

Description/Classification

Description

Albuterol is a moderately selective short-acting beta-2-receptor agonist (SABA). Albuterol is a racemic mixture of R- and S-isomers, and is widely used as a bronchodilator. The R-enantiomer is the therapeutically active moiety. It is indicated for the management of asthma and acute bronchospasm in adult and pediatric patients, and for the treatment of bronchospasm due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults.[28532][43993][49951][49953][43674][59350] It is also used off-label as an adjuvant treatment for hyperkalemia in certain clinical situations. Albuterol is similar in structure to terbutaline, and when compared to non-selective beta-agonists, produces equivalent bronchodilation with less cardiac stimulation.[51896] Outside the U.S., albuterol is referred to as salbutamol. Orally inhaled SABAs are recommended for the management of asthma exacerbations. SABAs should not be used alone to manage asthma, but continue to be an option for reliever therapy in adult and pediatric patients with intermittent asthma and those with mild or moderate persistent asthma who are taking controller therapy such as inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or ICS-long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) regimens. SABAs remain a key reliever therapy for infants and very young children (less than 4 years of age).[64807][66299] However, guidelines now promote the use of "SMART" (single maintenance and reliever therapy) inhaler dosing strategies as preferred asthma management for selected adult and pediatric patients; such regimens usually combine an ICS with formoterol.[64807][66299] SABAs also prevent exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB), however, tolerance can develop with regular use and the incidence of EIB can usually be reduced with maintenance ICS therapy.[56291][64807] Although historically a trial of albuterol was an option for infants and young children presenting with bronchiolitis, this practice is no longer recommended due to a lack of clinical benefit.[58442] Albuterol may be used for first-line therapy in patients with mild COPD and in combination with other treatments in those with more severe disease; inhaled SABAs are preferred for the management of acute COPD exacerbations, with or without an inhaled short-acting anticholinergic.[63765] Due to the increased risks associated with systemic therapy, the use of oral albuterol is not recommended in the management of asthma or COPD.[64807][63765]

Classifications

  • Respiratory System
    • Agents for Reactive and Obstructive Airway Diseases
      • Beta-2 Agonists
        • Oral Beta-2 Agonists
        • Respiratory Short-Acting Beta-2 Agonists (SABA)
Revision Date: 01/26/2021, 03:15:11 PM

References

28532 - Proventil HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of MERCK & CO., INC.; 2017 Sept.43674 - Albuterol sulfate 0.63 mg and 1.25 mg Inhalation Solution package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2018 May.43993 - Albuterol inhalation solution package insert. Corona, CA: Watson Pharma, Inc.; 2010 Aug.49951 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2021 Aug.49953 - Albuterol sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083% (2.5 mg/3 mL) package insert. Columbia, SC: The Ritedose Corporation: 2019 Dec.51896 - Sorkness CA. Beta-adrenergic agonists. In: Adkinson NF, Busse WW, Holgate ST et al., eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice. 7th ed. St. Louis: Mosby56291 - Parsons JP, Hallstrand TS, Mastronarde JG, et al. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline exercise induced bronchoconstriction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;187:1016-1027.58442 - Ralson SL, Lieberthal AS, Meissner HC. Clinical practice guideline: the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 2014;134:e1474-1502.59350 - ProAir Respiclick (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2020 Sept.63765 - Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2021. Retrieved 3/8/2021. Available on the World Wide Web at https://goldcopd.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/GOLD-REPORT-2021-v1.1-25Nov20_WMV.pdf64807 - Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2020. Available from: http://www.ginasthma.org. Accessed May 20th, 2020.66299 - Expert Panel Working Group of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) administered and coordinated National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee (NAEPPCC), et al. 2020 Focused Updates to the Asthma Management Guidelines: A Report from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020;146:1217-1270.

Administration Information

General Administration Information

For storage information, see the specific product information within the How Supplied section.

Route-Specific Administration

Oral Administration

  • Administer with meals to minimize gastric irritation.

Oral Solid Formulations

Immediate release tablets:

  • Administer orally on a regular dosage schedule as directed by prescriber.[44010]

 

Extended-release tablets:

  • Swallow whole, do not chew or crush the extended-release tablets.[44002]

Oral Liquid Formulations

  • Administer using a calibrated oral measuring device to ensure accurate dosing.[44003]

Inhalation Administration

Aerosol inhalation (e.g., ProAir HFA, Ventolin HFA)

  • Instruct patient on proper inhalation technique; see the specific product's "Instructions for Use" from the manufacturer.
  • Make sure the canister is firmly seated in the plastic mouthpiece adapter before each use.
  • Shake the inhaler well. Prime the inhaler before the first use by spraying four times into the air, away from the eyes and face. When the inhaler has not been used for a prolonged period or it has been dropped, prime by spraying two to four (2 to 4) times into the air away from the face, according to the specific inhaler type.[31823][33925]
  • For patients of any age unable to coordinate inhalation and actuation, a spacer or valved holding chamber (VHC) should be used.
  • The choice of using a mouthpiece versus a face mask with a spacer/VHC device must be made based on the skills and understanding of each individual patient. However, in general, children younger than 4 years require administration with a tight-fitting face mask and spacer/VHC device to achieve optimal delivery. If a face mask is used, allow 3 to 5 inhalations per actuation.
  • General administration instructions: Shake the inhaler well before each use. Take the cap off the mouthpiece. Hold the inhaler as directed for the inhaler type. The patient will breathe out through the mouth and push as much air from the lungs as the patient can. Put the mouthpiece in the mouth and have patient close their lips around it. Push the top of the canister all the way down while the patient breathes in deeply and slowly through the mouth. Right after the spray comes out, release the canister. After the patient has breathed in all the way, take the inhaler out of the mouth. The patient should hold breath as long as they can, up to 10 seconds, then breathe normally. If prescribed more sprays, wait 1 minute and shake the inhaler again. Repeat inhaler steps. Put the cap back on the mouthpiece after use.
  • Following administration, instruct patient to rinse the mouth with water to minimize dry mouth.
  • To avoid the spread of infection, do not use the inhaler for more than one person.
  • Clean the plastic mouthpiece of the inhaler at least once a week; some manufacturers advocate daily cleaning. After removing the medication canister wash the mouthpiece in warm running water. Do not allow the medication canister to get wet. Shake excess water from the mouthpiece and verify that all medication build-up has been rinsed away. Allow the mouthpiece to air-dry before next use (e.g., over-night).[31823][33925]
  • Discard medication and inhaler after expired or once the labeled number of inhalations have been used, whichever comes first; some products may have an inhalation counter. Ventolin HFA expires 12 months after medication removal from the foil pouch.[49951] Other products should be discarded when the labeled number of actuations has been used or by the expiration date printed on original packaging; whichever comes first.[31823][28532]

Valved holding chamber (VHC) with aerosol inhalation:

  • Delivery of a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a spacer with or without a mouthpiece may be preferred in adults and children with asthma exacerbation. Nebulizers can transmit respiratory viral particles.
    • For infants and children up to 3 years of age, a pressurized MDI plus spacer with face mask is recommended; a nebulizer with a face mask is an alternative.
    • For children 4 to 5 years old, a pressurized MDI plus spacer is recommended; a pressurized MDI plus spacer with face mask or a nebulizer with a face mask is an alternative.[64807]
  • In children 2 years and older with acute asthma, the use of an MDI plus valved holding chamber (VHC) is as effective as nebulized therapy when appropriate administration technique is used. The method of delivery does not result in a significant difference in hospital admission rates in children seen in the emergency department or equivalent community setting. Additionally, the length of stay in the emergency department is shorter when a VHC was used.[56384]

 

Powder for Inhalation (e.g., ProAir RespiClick, ProAir Digihaler)

  • Instruct patient on proper inhalation technique; see the specific product's "Instructions for Use" from the manufacturer.
  • Before using for the first time, check the dose counter window to ensure that the inhaler is full and the number "200" is in the window. The dose counter will count down each time the mouthpiece cap is opened and closed. The dose counter only displays even numbers (example: 200, 198, 196, etc.) in the window.
  • Hold the inhaler upright while opening the cap fully. When the cap is opened, a dose of albuterol will be activated for delivery of the medicine. Make sure a "click" sound is heard; if not, the inhaler may not be activated to give a dose of medicine.
  • The cap should not be opened unless the patient is ready to take a dose; opening and closing the cap without inhaling a dose will waste the medicine and may damage the inhaler.
  • The patient should breathe out through the mouth and push as much air from the lungs as they can. Be careful that the patient does not breathe out into the inhaler mouthpiece. Put the mouthpiece in the mouth and have the patient close their lips around it. The patient should breathe in deeply through the mouth until their lungs feel completely full of air. Ensure that the vent above the mouthpiece is not blocked by the patient's lips or fingers. The patient should hold their breath for about 10 seconds or as long as they comfortably can.
  • Remove the inhaler from the mouth.
  • Check the dose counter on the back of the inhaler to make sure the dose was received.
  • Close the cap over the mouthpiece after each use of the inhaler; make sure the cap closes firmly into place.
  • To inhale another dose, close the cap and then repeat inhaler steps.
  • The inhaler contains a powder and must be kept clean and dry at all times. Do not wash or put any part of the inhaler in water. If the mouthpiece needs cleaning, gently wipe it with a dry cloth or tissue.
  • When there are "20" doses left, the dose counter will change to red; refill the prescription or contact the doctor for another prescription.
  • ProAir Digihaler contains a built-in electronic module which detects, records, and stores data on inhaler events, including peak inspiratory flow rate. A mobile app is required for data transmission but is not required for the administration of albuterol to the patient.
  • Throw away the inhaler 13 months after removing it from the foil pouch for the first time, when the dose counter displays "0", or after the expiration date on the package, whichever comes first.[59350][64470]

 

Inhalation solution for nebulization

  • For a 2.5 mg dose of albuterol, dilute 0.5 mL of a 0.5% solution for nebulization to a final volume of 3 mL with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution or use 3 mL of the commercially available 0.083% solution for nebulization. Deliver solution by nebulization over 5 to 15 minutes.
  • The choice of using a mouthpiece versus a face mask must be made based on the skills and understanding of each individual patient.
  • Using the 'blow-by' technique (i.e., holding the face mask or open tube near the patient's nose and mouth) is not recommended.
  • Some nebulizer solutions state a grace period of 1 week is allowed after removal from the foil pouch.[43674] Other products state that the vials should be stored in the foil pouch until time of use.[49953] Refer to the specific product for this information.

Clinical Pharmaceutics Information

From Trissel's 2‚Ñ¢ Clinical Pharmaceutics Database
Revision Date: 05/19/2020, 04:07:40 PMCopyright 2004-2021 by Lawrence A. Trissel. All Rights Reserved.

References

28532 - Proventil HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of MERCK & CO., INC.; 2017 Sept.31823 - ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Miami, FL: IVAX Laboratories; 2019 Feb.33925 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2008 Mar.43674 - Albuterol sulfate 0.63 mg and 1.25 mg Inhalation Solution package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2018 May.44002 - Albuterol extended-release tablet package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2006 July.44003 - Albuterol oral solution package insert. Huntsville, AL: Qualitest Pharmaceuticals; 2008 May.44010 - Albuterol tablet package insert. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Dash Pharmaceuticals LLC.; 2019 Sept.49951 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2021 Aug.49953 - Albuterol sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083% (2.5 mg/3 mL) package insert. Columbia, SC: The Ritedose Corporation: 2019 Dec.56384 - Cates CJ, Welsch EJ, Rowe BH. Holding chambers (spacers) versus nebulisers for beta-agonist treatment of acute asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;9:doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000052.pub3.59350 - ProAir Respiclick (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2020 Sept.64470 - ProAir Digihaler (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2018 Dec.64807 - Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2020. Available from: http://www.ginasthma.org. Accessed May 20th, 2020.

Adverse Reactions

Severe

  • anaphylactoid reactions
  • angioedema
  • arrhythmia exacerbation
  • atrial fibrillation
  • bronchospasm
  • erythema multiforme
  • muscle paralysis
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Moderate

  • angina
  • ataxia
  • chest pain (unspecified)
  • conjunctivitis
  • dysphonia
  • dyspnea
  • edema
  • excitability
  • glossitis
  • hyperglycemia
  • hypertension
  • hypokalemia
  • hypotension
  • lymphadenopathy
  • metabolic acidosis
  • migraine
  • palpitations
  • peripheral vasodilation
  • QT prolongation
  • sinus tachycardia
  • ST-T wave changes
  • supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)
  • urinary retention
  • wheezing

Mild

  • abdominal pain
  • agitation
  • anxiety
  • cough
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
  • dyspepsia
  • emotional lability
  • epistaxis
  • eructation
  • fever
  • flatulence
  • flushing
  • headache
  • hoarseness
  • hyperactivity
  • hyperhidrosis
  • hyperkinesis
  • infection
  • insomnia
  • irritability
  • laryngitis
  • malaise
  • muscle cramps
  • musculoskeletal pain
  • nasal congestion
  • nausea
  • nightmares
  • otalgia
  • pharyngitis
  • rash
  • restlessness
  • rhinitis
  • throat irritation
  • tinnitus
  • tooth discoloration
  • tremor
  • urticaria
  • vertigo
  • vomiting
  • weakness
  • xerostomia

Like other sympathomimetics, albuterol can cause various adverse cardiovascular effects. Although incidences of the adverse effects are often unavailable, systemic albuterol formulations are generally expected to have a higher incidence of adverse effects compared to inhaled formulations. Hypertension (1% to < 5% incidence from data of various inhaled formulations), angina, palpitations (<1% to < 10%), sinus tachycardia (1% to 10%), chest pain (unspecified) (< 3%), or arrhythmia exacerbation or precipitation have been reported, especially in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Peripheral vasodilation (e.g., hypotension) can also occur from beta-2 stimulation of the vasculature. Albuterol can produce clinically significant cardiovascular effects in some patients, as measured by pulse rate, blood pressure, and/or symptoms. Although such effects are uncommon after administration of albuterol at recommended doses, if they occur, the drug may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce ECG changes, ST-T wave changes (e.g., flattening of the T wave, ST segment depression) and QT prolongation. Arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), and extrasystole have been reported with albuterol use. Cardiac effects may be related to sympathomimetic effects and/or beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. Albuterol can cause hyperglycemia and hypokalemia. Both of these effects occur from stimulation of beta-2 receptors, resulting in gluconeogenesis and intracellular movement of potassium. These effects occur most commonly with inhalation (via nebulization) of relatively large doses of albuterol (e.g., 5 to 10 mg).[28532] [40947] [43993] [44010]

Paradoxical bronchospasm can occur after treatment with albuterol and can be life threatening. If this occurs albuterol should be discontinued immediately. Anaphylactoid reactions have been rarely reported with beta-agonist therapy. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of racemic albuterol, as demonstrated by rare cases of anaphylaxis, angioedema, bronchospasm, oropharyngeal swelling, rash (unspecified), and urticaria. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme have been reported rarely in children who received albuterol.[44003] In clinical trials of albuterol inhalation, bronchospasm (8% to 15.4%), asthma exacerbation, allergic reactions (0.9% to 6%), and urticaria (0.9% to 1.7%) were reported.[28532] [43674] [43993] Use of albuterol inhalation solution produces adverse effects similar to those observed with the inhalation aerosol.[40947]

Central nervous system (CNS) adverse reactions are common with the use of both oral and inhaled albuterol. Tremor is one of the most common adverse effects and has been reported in < 1% to 20% of patients who received inhaled albuterol in clinical trials. In controlled trials of albuterol oral extended-release tablets, tremor was reported in 24.2% of patients overall; however, the incidence of tremor increased with increasing age with up to 37.9% of adults aged 41 to 50 years experiencing tremor. Other adverse effects associated with albuterol use include headache (3% to 7% with inhaled formulations, 18.8% with extended-release tablet), migraine (1% to 2%), nervousness (1% to 15%), dizziness (3% to 7% and < 5% with inhaled formulations, 1.5% with extended-release tablets), and insomnia (1% to 3.1%).[43674] [43993] [44002] [44010] Anxiety (< 3%) and nightmares (1%) have also been reported with some formulations of albuterol inhalation aerosol.[28532] [40947] Emotional lability was reported in 1% of children 2 to 6 years of age receiving albuterol oral solution and agitation, aggressive behavior, and lightheadedness were reported in <= 1% of children 4 to 11 years of age receiving albuterol inhalation aerosol.[40947] [44003] Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects associated with both oral and inhaled albuterol include nausea (< 15%) and vomiting (4.2% to 7%). Throat irritation (6% to 10%), dyspepsia (< 5%), abdominal pain (3%), diarrhea (< 3%), tooth discoloration (1%), eructation (< 3%), and flatulence (< 3%) have all been reported with inhaled albuterol therapy.[28532] [40947] [31823] Appetite stimulation (3%), abdominal pain (< 1%), and decreased appetite (1%) have been reported in clinical trials of patients receiving albuterol oral solution. Dry mouth (xerostomia) (< 3%), throat hoarseness, and unusual taste have also been reported with albuterol therapy.[44003] Other adverse effects occurring with albuterol therapy include epistaxis (1% to 3%) and cough (5% or less).[33925] [40947]

Musculoskeletal pain (3% to 5%), hyperkinesis (4% or less), weakness (2% or less), malaise (1.5%), ataxia (< 3%), vertigo (< 3%), rigors (< 3%), edema (< 3%), increased sweating (hyperhidrosis, < 3%), drowsiness (< 3%), dysphonia (< 3%, inhalational formulations) and excitability (2%) have been reported with albuterol use during clinical trials.[28532] [33925] [44002] [44003] [49953] Muscle cramps have been reported with both inhaled (2.7% or less) and oral albuterol formulations (2.7% overall incidence). In controlled trials of albuterol extended-release tablets, the incidence of muscle cramps increased with age (12 to 20 years, 1.2%; 21 to 30 years, 2.6%; 31 to 50 years, 6.9%). Less frequent adverse reactions occurring in less than 1% of patients include flushing, restlessness, irritability, and urinary retention.[44010] A case of hypokalemic periodic muscle paralysis, possibly precipitated by inhaled albuterol, occurred in a 34 year old female with a medical history of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP). Following administration of nebulized albuterol (2.5 mg) for bronchitis, the patient was given an albuterol inhaler for home use. After inhaling 2 puffs, the patient developed severe leg pain and muscle weakness within 1 hour of treatment. Paralysis then developed in all of her extremities, torso, and neck; sensation remained intact. The patient had a serum potassium concentration of 1.8 meq/L; potassium replacement was initiated. After 3 days, movement in the upper and lower limbs returned; however, weakness persisted. After satisfactory completion of physical therapy, the patient was discharged. Albuterol causes an intracellular shift of potassium into muscle cells, therefore decreasing the serum concentration and elevating the resting membrane potential. As a result, the repolarization period is prolonged. Use albuterol with caution in patients with a history of HPP or any acute systemic weakness.[56005] Hyperactivity has been reported with post-marketing experience.[49951] Some adverse effects appear to occur more frequently in young children (2 to 6 years of age) than in older children or adults especially excitability, which occurred in roughly 20% of young children receiving albuterol oral solution in clinical trials.[44003]

Metabolic acidosis has been reported in post-marketing experience with albuterol inhalation solution and aerosol. A causal relationship has not been established.[43674] [49951] The potential for this effect following the use of oral albuterol dosage forms is unknown.

Infectious and respiratory adverse effects have been reported with inhaled albuterol therapy. In clinical trials of Accuneb (albuterol solution for nebulizer inhalation), otitis media (0.9% to 4.3% vs 0% placebo), gastroenteritis (0.9% to 3.4% vs 0.9% placebo), cold symptoms (3.4% vs 1.7% placebo), flu syndrome (2.6% vs 1.7% placebo), lymphadenopathy (0.9% to 2.6% vs 1.7% placebo), skin/appendage infection (1.7% vs 0% placebo), and bronchitis (0.9% to 1.7% vs 0.9% placebo) were all reported.[43674] Other infectious and respiratory adverse events reported with inhaled albuterol therapy include respiratory tract infection (7% to 21%), pharyngitis (7% to 14%), rhinitis (4% to 16%), fever (6%, reported with albuterol HFA MDI formulation), dyspnea (< 3%), laryngitis (< 3%, reported with inhalational formulations), ear disorder (< 3%), ear pain or otalgia (< 3%), glossitis (< 3%), tinnitus (< 3%), urinary tract infection (< 3%), increased sputum (1.5%), wheezing (1% to 1.5%), nasopharyngitis (2%), oropharyngeal pain (2%), and nasal congestion (1%).[28532] [31823] [43993] [59350] Conjunctivitis has also been reported in 1% of patients receiving albuterol oral solution [44003]; conjunctivitis or eye irritation may also occur if formulations for inhalation are inadvertently sprayed in the eyes.

Revision Date: 08/24/2016, 12:39:05 PM

References

28532 - Proventil HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of MERCK & CO., INC.; 2017 Sept.31823 - ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Miami, FL: IVAX Laboratories; 2019 Feb.33925 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2008 Mar.40947 - Albuterol Inhalation Aerosol, Metered package insert. West Roxybury, MA: Armstrong Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; 2006 Apr.43674 - Albuterol sulfate 0.63 mg and 1.25 mg Inhalation Solution package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2018 May.43993 - Albuterol inhalation solution package insert. Corona, CA: Watson Pharma, Inc.; 2010 Aug.44002 - Albuterol extended-release tablet package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2006 July.44003 - Albuterol oral solution package insert. Huntsville, AL: Qualitest Pharmaceuticals; 2008 May.44010 - Albuterol tablet package insert. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Dash Pharmaceuticals LLC.; 2019 Sept.49951 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2021 Aug.49953 - Albuterol sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083% (2.5 mg/3 mL) package insert. Columbia, SC: The Ritedose Corporation: 2019 Dec.56005 - Tucker C, Villanueva L. Acute hypokalemic periodic paralysis possibly precipitated by albuterol. Am J Health-Syst Pharm 2013;70:1588-1591.59350 - ProAir Respiclick (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2020 Sept.

Contraindications/Precautions

Absolute contraindications are italicized.

  • albuterol hypersensitivity
  • levalbuterol hypersensitivity
  • milk protein hypersensitivity
  • apheresis
  • AV block
  • bradycardia
  • breast-feeding
  • cardiac arrhythmias
  • cardiac disease
  • cardiomyopathy
  • celiac disease
  • deterioration of asthma
  • diabetes mellitus
  • diabetic ketoacidosis
  • females
  • fever
  • geriatric
  • heart failure
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • hyperthyroidism
  • hypocalcemia
  • hypokalemia
  • hypomagnesemia
  • hypothermia
  • hypothyroidism
  • labor
  • long QT syndrome
  • MAOI therapy
  • myocardial infarction
  • obstetric delivery
  • paradoxical bronchospasm
  • pheochromocytoma
  • pregnancy
  • QT prolongation
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • seizure disorder
  • seizures
  • sickle cell disease
  • sleep deprivation
  • stroke
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • tachycardia

Paradoxical bronchospasm can occur after treatment with albuterol and can be life-threatening. If this occurs, albuterol should be discontinued immediately and supportive care provided as necessary. Additionally, increased albuterol use may indicate asthma destabilization. Asthma may deteriorate acutely over a period of hours or chronically over several days or weeks. If deterioration of asthma occurs during therapy with albuterol, appropriate evaluation of the patient and the treatment strategy is warranted, giving special consideration to corticosteroid therapy. Albuterol has no anti-inflammatory activity and is not a substitute for inhaled or oral corticosteroid therapy. The use of beta-agonists alone may not be adequate to control asthma in many patients. Early consideration should be given to adding anti-inflammatory agents (e.g., corticosteroids) to the therapeutic regimen. Corticosteroids should not be stopped or reduced when albuterol therapy is instituted.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470] Do not exceed recommended dosages of beta-agonists; fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs in patients with asthma. The exact cause of death is unknown, but cardiac arrest after an unexpected development of a severe acute asthmatic crisis and subsequent hypoxia is suspected.[31823] [43674] [49951] [59350] [64470]

Albuterol is contraindicated in patients with albuterol hypersensitivity, levalbuterol hypersensitivity, or hypersensitivity to any component of the specific dosage formulation. Albuterol inhalation powder (i.e., ProAir RespiClick and ProAir Digihaler) is contraindicated in patients with severe milk protein hypersensitivity since the formulation contains lactose, which contains milk proteins.[59350] [64470] Immediate hypersensitivity reactions may occur after administration of racemic albuterol, as demonstrated by rare cases of urticaria, angioedema, rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, and oropharyngeal edema. Like other beta-agonists, albuterol can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life-threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs, albuterol should be discontinued immediately and alternative therapy instituted. It should be recognized that paradoxical bronchospasm, when associated with inhaled formulations, frequently occurs with the first use of a new canister or vial.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470]

Albuterol, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or seizure disorder, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, or unusual responsiveness to other sympathomimetic amines. Pheochromocytoma may increase the risk of prolonging the QT interval when using albuterol.[28432] [28457] [31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [56592] [59350] [64470] [65180]

Monitor heart rate and blood pressure in patients receiving high doses of albuterol for acute asthma exacerbations; cardiovascular adverse effects are more likely to occur when aggressive doses are used. Use albuterol with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, including ischemic cardiac disease (coronary artery disease), hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, tachycardia, or QT prolongation. Beta-agonists should be avoided in patients with congenital long QT syndrome due to the risk of torsade de pointes and QT prolongation. Use albuterol with caution in patients with conditions that may increase the risk of QT prolongation including bradycardia, AV block, heart failure, stress-related cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, or in patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT interval or cause electrolyte imbalances. Females, people 65 years and older, patients with sleep deprivation, pheochromocytoma, sickle cell disease, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypothermia, systemic inflammation (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, fever, and some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and celiac disease) and patients undergoing apheresis procedures (e.g., plasmapheresis [plasma exchange], cytapheresis) may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation. Significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate could be expected to occur in some patients after use of any beta-adrenergic bronchodilator. As with other beta-adrenergic agonist medications, albuterol may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. Correct pre-existing hypokalemia before beta-agonist administration; hypokalemia may increase the risk of prolonging the QT interval when using albuterol.[28225] [28432] [28457] [31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [56592] [59350] [64470] [65180]

Use albuterol with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus. Large doses of intravenous racemic albuterol have been reported to aggravate preexisting diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis. Also, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) typically have a severe electrolyte imbalance. Serum potassium concentrations must be closely monitored during the treatment of DKA and albuterol may contribute to changes in serum potassium concentrations.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470]

There are no randomized clinical studies of use of albuterol during pregnancy. Available data from published epidemiological studies and postmarketing case reports of pregnancy outcomes following inhaled albuterol use do not consistently demonstrate a risk of major birth defects or miscarriage. Poorly controlled or moderately controlled asthma represents risks in pregnant women; there is an increased risk of preeclampsia in the mother and prematurity, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in the neonate. Pregnant women should be closely monitored and medication adjusted as necessary to maintain optimal control.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470] The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) Asthma and Pregnancy Working Group include short-acting inhaled beta-2 agonists (SABAs) as first-line therapy for mild intermittent asthma during pregnancy, if treatment is required. Inhalation therapy is preferred to oral albuterol treatment. Albuterol is preferred over other SABAs due to extensive safety-related information during pregnancy. However, there is no evidence of fetal injury with the use of other inhaled SABAs, and maintaining a previously established treatment regimen may be more beneficial to the patient.[31822] Due to the potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, the use of albuterol for acute relief of bronchospasm during labor and obstetric delivery should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Additionally, albuterol is not approved for the management of pre-term labor; serious adverse events, including pulmonary edema, have been reported after treatment of premature labor with beta-2 agonists. A pregnancy registry is available to monitor pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to asthma medications, including levalbuterol. To enroll in MotherToBaby Pregnancy Studies' Asthma and Pregnancy Study, patients should call 1-877-311-8972 or visit www.mothertobaby.org/ongoing-study/asthma.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470]

According to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) for managing asthma during pregnancy, there is currently no contraindication for the use of short-acting inhaled beta-2 agonists, including albuterol, during breast-feeding. Inhaled albuterol therapy is preferred over oral treatment.[31822] Systematic data regarding the presence of albuterol in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production are lacking. Plasma concentrations of albuterol after inhalation of therapeutic doses are very low in humans and substantially lower than systemically-administered albuterol. If present in breast milk, albuterol has low oral bioavailability in the infant.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470]

Reported clinical experience with inhaled albuterol has not identified any differences in safety, efficacy, or clinical responsiveness with geriatric vs. younger adult patients. Geriatric patients may be more sensitive to the side effects of inhaled and systemic beta-agonists, especially tremor and tachycardia. Geriatric patients may be at increased risk for developing a prolonged QT interval when using albuterol. Although not clearly established, airway responsiveness to albuterol may also change with age. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Monitor for adverse effects, as inhaled beta-agonists, such as albuterol, can cause restlessness, increased heart rate, and anxiety.[28432] [28457] [31823] [43674] [44002] [49951] [56592] [59350] [60742] [64470] [65180]

Albuterol should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy (MAOI therapy) or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the action of albuterol on the vascular system may be potentiated.

Revision Date: 02/09/2021, 03:13:55 PM

References

28225 - CredibleMeds. Drugs to avoid in congenital long QT. Available on the World Wide Web at http://www.crediblemeds.org.28432 - Roden, DM. Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval. New Engl J Med 2004;350:1013-22.28457 - Crouch MA, Limon L, Cassano AT. Clinical relevance and management of drug-related QT interval prolongation. Pharmacotherapy 2003;23:881-908.31822 - NAEPP Working Group Report on Managing Asthma During Pregnancy. Recommendations for Pharmacologic Treatment-Update 2004. NIH Publication No. 05-3279. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes of Health; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 200431823 - ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Miami, FL: IVAX Laboratories; 2019 Feb.43674 - Albuterol sulfate 0.63 mg and 1.25 mg Inhalation Solution package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2018 May.44002 - Albuterol extended-release tablet package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2006 July.44010 - Albuterol tablet package insert. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Dash Pharmaceuticals LLC.; 2019 Sept.49951 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2021 Aug.56592 - van Noord C, Eijgelsheim M, Stricker BH. Drug- and non-drug-associated QT interval prolongation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010;70(1):16-23.59350 - ProAir Respiclick (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2020 Sept.60742 - Health Care Financing Administration. Interpretive Guidelines for Long-term Care Facilities. Title 42 CFR 483.25(l) F329: Unnecessary Drugs. Revised 2015.64470 - ProAir Digihaler (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2018 Dec.65180 - Woosley RL, Heise CW, Gallo T, et al. QTFactors List. Oro Valley, AZ: AZCERT, Inc.; Accessed March 31, 2020. Available on the World Wide Web at: https://crediblemeds.org/ndfa-list/

Mechanism of Action

Mechanism of Action: Albuterol is a moderately selective beta2-adrenergic agonist that stimulates receptors of the smooth muscle in the lungs, uterus, and vasculature supplying skeletal muscle. Albuterol is racemic beta-agonist, comprised of an equal mixture of R- and S-isomers. The R-isomer, known as levalbuterol, is primarily responsible for bronchodilation. Although not confirmed during clinical trials, the S-isomer of albuterol has bronchoconstrictive properties in animal models.

Intracellularly, the actions of albuterol are mediated by cyclic AMP, the production of which is augmented by beta2-stimulation. Albuterol is believed to work by activating adenylate cyclase, the enzyme responsible for generating cyclic AMP, an intracellular mediator. Increased cyclic AMP leads to activation of protein kinase A, which inhibits phosphorylation of myosin and lowers intracellular ionic calcium concentrations, resulting in relaxation. The net result of beta2-receptor agonism in the lungs is relaxation of bronchial and tracheal smooth muscles, which in turn relieves bronchospasm, reduces airway resistance, facilitates mucous drainage, and increases vital capacity.

Albuterol can also inhibit the degranulation and subsequent release of inflammatory autocoids from mast cells. Stimulation of beta2-receptors on peripheral vascular smooth muscle can cause vasodilation and a modest decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Albuterol is an effective adjunctive treatment for hyperkalemia; beta2-adrenergic stimulation results in intracellular accumulation of serum potassium due to stimulation of the Na/K ATPase pump, leading to moderate degrees of hypokalemia.

Revision Date: 02/07/2009, 02:22:55 AM

References

Pharmacokinetics

Albuterol can be administered as oral tablets or oral solution but is more commonly administered by oral inhalation. Albuterol crosses the blood-brain barrier and may cross the placenta. The liver metabolizes albuterol extensively to inactive compounds. Excretion of albuterol occurs through the urine and feces. The elimination half-life of albuterol ranges from 2.7 to 6 hours, with orally administered albuterol having a shorter half-life than the inhaled product.

Route-Specific Pharmacokinetics

Oral Route

When administered orally, albuterol is well absorbed through the GI tract. Onset of action begins within 30 minutes, peak levels are reached in 2 to 3 hours, and duration of action is 4 to 6 hours for the conventional-release tablets and 8 to 12 hours for the sustained-release product. After oral administration, 75% of a dose is excreted in urine within 72 hours as metabolites; 4% may be found in feces.

 

Immediate-release formulations

Immediate-release albuterol is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, obtaining Cmax (14 to 18 ng/mL) within 2 to 3 hours. Onset of pulmonary improvement can usually be seen within 30 minutes. Clinically significant improvement (defined as maintaining at least a 15% increase in FEV1 and a 20% increase in mid-expiratory flow rate over baseline) was recorded for up to 6 hours in a controlled clinical trial of 55 children. Elimination half-life is 5 hours.[44002][44003][44010]

 

Extended-release formulations

The bioavailability of extended-release (ER) tablets is 100% relative to the immediate-release (IR) tablets at steady state. Albuterol ER has a lower mean Cmax (14 ng/mL) and longer Tmax (6 hours) when compared to IR formulations. Fluctuations in plasma concentrations are similar for albuterol extended-release tablets administered at 12-hour intervals and immediate-release tablets administered at 6-hour intervals. AUC for both formulations is similar (130 ng x hr/mL). Elimination half-life of the ER formulation is approximately 9 hours. Food decreases the rate of absorption without altering the extent of bioavailability. Single dose studies have indicated administration with food causes a more gradual increase in the fraction of the dose absorbed compared to fasting conditions.[44002]

Inhalation Route

Following oral inhalation, albuterol is absorbed over several hours from the respiratory tract. It is postulated from studies with other inhaled bronchodilators that most of an albuterol inhaled dose (approximately 90%) is swallowed and absorbed through the GI tract. The systemic exposure in children 6 to 11 years of age is similar to that of adults after 180 mcg single dose oral inhalation. Onset of bronchodilation occurs within 5 to 15 minutes after oral inhalation, peaks in 0.5 to 2 hours, and lasts 2 to 6 hours. Administration via nebulization does not appear to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of albuterol. After oral inhalation, 80% to 100% of a dose is excreted via the kidneys within 72 hours; up to 10% may be eliminated in feces.[31823][49951][59350]

Special Populations

Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of albuterol were studied in a small number of subjects with creatinine clearances between 7 to 53 mL/minute in comparison to healthy volunteers. The half-life was unchanged; however albuterol clearance was decreased by 67% in those with renal impairment. The manufacturer (specifically of ProAir HFA) recommends caution during administration of high doses of inhaled albuterol to patients with renal impairment.[31823]

Pediatrics

Immediate-release formulations

Immediate-release albuterol is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, obtaining Cmax (14 to 18 ng/mL) within 2 to 3 hours. Onset of pulmonary improvement can usually be seen within 30 minutes. Clinically significant improvement (defined as maintaining at least a 15% increase in FEV1 and a 20% increase in mid-expiratory flow rate over baseline) was recorded for up to 6 hours in a controlled clinical trial of 55 children. Elimination half-life is 5 hours.[44002][44003][44010]

 

Extended-release formulations

The bioavailability of extended-release (ER) tablets is 100% relative to the immediate-release (IR) tablets at steady state. Albuterol ER has a lower mean Cmax (14 ng/mL) and longer Tmax (6 hours) when compared to IR formulations. Fluctuations in plasma concentrations are similar for albuterol extended-release tablets administered at 12-hour intervals and immediate-release tablets administered at 6-hour intervals. AUC for both formulations is similar (130 ng x hr/mL). Elimination half-life of the ER formulation is approximately 9 hours. Food decreases the rate of absorption without altering the extent of bioavailability. Single dose studies have indicated administration with food causes a more gradual increase in the fraction of the dose absorbed compared to fasting conditions.[44002]

 

Inhalation Route

During studies, the majority of the nebulized albuterol dose administered has been recovered from the nebulizer apparatus and/or expired air; less than 20% of albuterol administered is systemically absorbed.[43674] At recommended doses, the bioavailability of inhaled albuterol is low. Onset of pulmonary improvement occurs within 2 to 20 minutes. After a 3 mg nebulized dose, peak concentrations of 2.1 ng/mL (range: 1.4 to 3.2 ng/mL) are reached in approximately 30 minutes and peak pulmonary improvement is seen at 1 to 2 hours.[49953] Duration of action is 2 to 6 hours. Half-life is approximately 4.6 to 6 hours.[31823][43674][49951][59350] Administration via nebulization does not appear to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of albuterol. The systemic exposure in children 6 to 11 years of age is similar to that of adults after 180 mcg single dose oral inhalation.[59350] A small study in 11 healthy children (aged 4 to 11 years) who received a single dose of albuterol inhalation aerosol 180 mcg via metered-dose inhaler, demonstrated a least square mean (SE) Cmax and AUC of 1100 (+/-1.18) pg/mL and 5120 (+/-1.15) pg x hr/mL, respectively. The least square mean (SE) terminal plasma half-life was 166 (+/-7.8) minutes.[31823] In a cumulative dose study, the AUC of the dry powder inhalation was similar to the aerosol formulation (metered dose inhaler); however, the Cmax was about one-third higher in the dry powder inhalation group.[59350]

Revision Date: 01/30/2019, 01:06:04 PM

References

31823 - ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Miami, FL: IVAX Laboratories; 2019 Feb.43674 - Albuterol sulfate 0.63 mg and 1.25 mg Inhalation Solution package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2018 May.44002 - Albuterol extended-release tablet package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.; 2006 July.44003 - Albuterol oral solution package insert. Huntsville, AL: Qualitest Pharmaceuticals; 2008 May.44010 - Albuterol tablet package insert. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Dash Pharmaceuticals LLC.; 2019 Sept.49951 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2021 Aug.49953 - Albuterol sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083% (2.5 mg/3 mL) package insert. Columbia, SC: The Ritedose Corporation: 2019 Dec.59350 - ProAir Respiclick (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2020 Sept.

Pregnancy/Breast-feeding

labor, obstetric delivery, pregnancy

There are no randomized clinical studies of use of albuterol during pregnancy. Available data from published epidemiological studies and postmarketing case reports of pregnancy outcomes following inhaled albuterol use do not consistently demonstrate a risk of major birth defects or miscarriage. Poorly controlled or moderately controlled asthma represents risks in pregnant women; there is an increased risk of preeclampsia in the mother and prematurity, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in the neonate. Pregnant women should be closely monitored and medication adjusted as necessary to maintain optimal control.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470] The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) Asthma and Pregnancy Working Group include short-acting inhaled beta-2 agonists (SABAs) as first-line therapy for mild intermittent asthma during pregnancy, if treatment is required. Inhalation therapy is preferred to oral albuterol treatment. Albuterol is preferred over other SABAs due to extensive safety-related information during pregnancy. However, there is no evidence of fetal injury with the use of other inhaled SABAs, and maintaining a previously established treatment regimen may be more beneficial to the patient.[31822] Due to the potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, the use of albuterol for acute relief of bronchospasm during labor and obstetric delivery should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Additionally, albuterol is not approved for the management of pre-term labor; serious adverse events, including pulmonary edema, have been reported after treatment of premature labor with beta-2 agonists. A pregnancy registry is available to monitor pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to asthma medications, including levalbuterol. To enroll in MotherToBaby Pregnancy Studies' Asthma and Pregnancy Study, patients should call 1-877-311-8972 or visit www.mothertobaby.org/ongoing-study/asthma.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470]

breast-feeding

According to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) for managing asthma during pregnancy, there is currently no contraindication for the use of short-acting inhaled beta-2 agonists, including albuterol, during breast-feeding. Inhaled albuterol therapy is preferred over oral treatment.[31822] Systematic data regarding the presence of albuterol in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production are lacking. Plasma concentrations of albuterol after inhalation of therapeutic doses are very low in humans and substantially lower than systemically-administered albuterol. If present in breast milk, albuterol has low oral bioavailability in the infant.[31823] [43674] [44010] [49951] [59350] [64470]

Revision Date: 08/04/2020, 01:54:07 PM

References

31822 - NAEPP Working Group Report on Managing Asthma During Pregnancy. Recommendations for Pharmacologic Treatment-Update 2004. NIH Publication No. 05-3279. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes of Health; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 200431823 - ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalational Aerosol package insert. Miami, FL: IVAX Laboratories; 2019 Feb.43674 - Albuterol sulfate 0.63 mg and 1.25 mg Inhalation Solution package insert. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc; 2018 May.44010 - Albuterol tablet package insert. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Dash Pharmaceuticals LLC.; 2019 Sept.49951 - Ventolin HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol package insert. Research Triangle Park, NC: GlaxoSmithKline; 2021 Aug.59350 - ProAir Respiclick (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2020 Sept.64470 - ProAir Digihaler (albuterol sulfate) inhalation powder package insert. Horsham, PA: Teva Respiratory, LLC; 2018 Dec.

Interactions

Level 1 (Severe)

  • Cisapride
  • Dronedarone
  • Halofantrine
  • Levomethadyl
  • Mesoridazine
  • Pimozide
  • Thioridazine

Level 2 (Major)

  • Abarelix
  • Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene
  • Azithromycin
  • Chloroquine
  • Diethylpropion
  • Dobutamine
  • Dopamine
  • Doxapram
  • Ephedrine
  • Ephedrine; Guaifenesin
  • Foscarnet
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Isoproterenol
  • Lopinavir; Ritonavir
  • Methacholine
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
  • Norepinephrine
  • Pemoline
  • Phenelzine
  • Procarbazine
  • Racepinephrine
  • Tranylcypromine

Level 3 (Moderate)

  • Acebutolol
  • Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Acetazolamide
  • Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Amphetamine
  • Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine
  • Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts
  • Articaine; Epinephrine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine
  • Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine
  • Atenolol
  • Atenolol; Chlorthalidone
  • Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol
  • Benzphetamine
  • Beta-adrenergic blockers
  • Betaxolol
  • Bisoprolol
  • Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Brimonidine; Timolol
  • Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan
  • Bumetanide
  • Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine
  • Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine
  • Caffeine
  • Caffeine; Sodium Benzoate
  • Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine
  • Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine
  • Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine
  • Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine
  • Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Cocaine
  • Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine
  • Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Dichlorphenamide
  • Digoxin
  • Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine
  • Dorzolamide; Timolol
  • Epinephrine
  • Ergotamine; Caffeine
  • Esmolol
  • Ethacrynic Acid
  • Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Furosemide
  • Green Tea
  • Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine
  • Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine
  • Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine
  • Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine
  • Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Labetalol
  • Levobetaxolol
  • Levobunolol
  • Levothyroxine
  • Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine)
  • Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic)
  • Linezolid
  • Liothyronine
  • Lisdexamfetamine
  • Loop diuretics
  • Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methazolamide
  • Metoprolol
  • Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Midodrine
  • Nadolol
  • Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine
  • Nebivolol
  • Nebivolol; Valsartan
  • Penbutolol
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phentermine
  • Phentermine; Topiramate
  • Phenylephrine
  • Pindolol
  • Prilocaine; Epinephrine
  • Promethazine; Phenylephrine
  • Propranolol
  • Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine
  • Rasagiline
  • Sotalol
  • Theophylline, Aminophylline
  • Thyroid hormones
  • Timolol
  • Torsemide

Level 4 (Minor)

  • Alfuzosin
  • Amiodarone
  • Amisulpride
  • Amitriptyline
  • Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole
  • Anagrelide
  • Apomorphine
  • Aripiprazole
  • Arsenic Trioxide
  • Artemether; Lumefantrine
  • Asenapine
  • Atomoxetine
  • Bedaquiline
  • Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline
  • Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline
  • Buprenorphine
  • Buprenorphine; Naloxone
  • Cabotegravir; Rilpivirine
  • Ceritinib
  • Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline
  • Chlorpromazine
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Citalopram
  • Clarithromycin
  • Clofazimine
  • Clomipramine
  • Clozapine
  • Codeine; Promethazine
  • Crizotinib
  • Dasatinib
  • Degarelix
  • Desipramine
  • Deutetrabenazine
  • Dextromethorphan; Quinidine
  • Disopyramide
  • Dofetilide
  • Dolasetron
  • Dolutegravir; Rilpivirine
  • Donepezil
  • Donepezil; Memantine
  • Doxepin
  • Droperidol
  • Efavirenz
  • Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir
  • Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate
  • Eliglustat
  • Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir alafenamide
  • Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
  • Encorafenib
  • Enflurane
  • Entrectinib
  • Eribulin
  • Erythromycin
  • Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole
  • Escitalopram
  • Ezogabine
  • Fingolimod
  • Flecainide
  • Fluconazole
  • Fluoxetine
  • Fluphenazine
  • Fluvoxamine
  • Fostemsavir
  • Gemifloxacin
  • Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin
  • Gilteritinib
  • Glasdegib
  • Goserelin
  • Granisetron
  • Haloperidol
  • Halothane
  • Histrelin
  • Hydroxyzine
  • Ibutilide
  • Iloperidone
  • Imipramine
  • Inotuzumab Ozogamicin
  • Isoflurane
  • Itraconazole
  • Ivosidenib
  • Ketoconazole
  • Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin
  • Lapatinib
  • Lefamulin
  • Lenvatinib
  • Leuprolide
  • Leuprolide; Norethindrone
  • Levofloxacin
  • Lithium
  • Lofexidine
  • Loperamide
  • Loperamide; Simethicone
  • Macimorelin
  • Maprotiline
  • Mefloquine
  • Meperidine; Promethazine
  • Methadone
  • Metronidazole
  • Midostaurin
  • Mifepristone
  • Mirtazapine
  • Mobocertinib
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Nilotinib
  • Norfloxacin
  • Nortriptyline
  • Octreotide
  • Ofloxacin
  • Olanzapine
  • Olanzapine; Fluoxetine
  • Olanzapine; Samidorphan
  • Ondansetron
  • Osilodrostat
  • Osimertinib
  • Oxaliplatin
  • Ozanimod
  • Paliperidone
  • Panobinostat
  • Pasireotide
  • Pazopanib
  • Pentamidine
  • Perphenazine
  • Perphenazine; Amitriptyline
  • Pimavanserin
  • Pitolisant
  • Ponesimod
  • Posaconazole
  • Primaquine
  • Procainamide
  • Prochlorperazine
  • Promethazine
  • Promethazine; Dextromethorphan
  • Propafenone
  • Protriptyline
  • Quetiapine
  • Quinidine
  • Quinine
  • Ranolazine
  • Relugolix
  • Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate
  • Ribociclib
  • Ribociclib; Letrozole
  • Rilpivirine
  • Risperidone
  • Romidepsin
  • Saquinavir
  • Selpercatinib
  • Sertraline
  • Sevoflurane
  • Siponimod
  • Solifenacin
  • Sorafenib
  • Sunitinib
  • Tacrolimus
  • Tamoxifen
  • Telavancin
  • Telithromycin
  • Tetrabenazine
  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Tolterodine
  • Toremifene
  • Trazodone
  • Triclabendazole
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Trifluoperazine
  • Trimipramine
  • Triptorelin
  • Vandetanib
  • Vardenafil
  • Vemurafenib
  • Venlafaxine
  • Voclosporin
  • Voriconazole
  • Vorinostat
  • Ziprasidone
Abarelix: (Major) Since abarelix can cause QT prolongation, abarelix should be used cautiously, if at all, with other drugs that are associated with QT prolongation. Prescribers need to weigh the potential benefits and risks of abarelix use in patients with prolonged QT syndrome or in patients taking other drugs that may prolong the QT interval. Agents associated with a lower, but possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) based on varying levels of documentation include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may cause cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28406] [32901] [33925] [41231] [46800] Acebutolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Acetaminophen; Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Magnesium Salicylate; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Phenyltoloxamine; Salicylamide: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Acetazolamide: (Moderate) Albuterol may cause additive hypokalemia when coadministered with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. These combinations can lead to symptomatic hypokalemia and associated ECG changes in some susceptible individuals. Monitoring of potassium levels would be advisable. [28267] Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Alfuzosin: (Minor) Use caution when administering alfuzosin with short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) due to the potential for QT prolongation. Alfuzosin may prolong the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner. SABAs may rarely be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or if associated with hypokalemia. [28261] [28318] [33925] [46800] Amiodarone: (Minor) Amiodarone, a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Although the frequency of TdP is less with amiodarone than with other Class III agents, amiodarone is still associated with a risk of TdP. Due to the extremely long half-life of amiodarone, a drug interaction is possible for days to weeks after discontinuation of amiodarone Short-acting beta-agonists may rarely be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28224] [28318] [28457] [33925] Amisulpride: (Minor) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation when amisulpride is administered with short-acting beta-agonists. Amisulpride causes dose- and concentration- dependent QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be lower with short-acting beta-agonists as compared to long-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [65068] Amitriptyline: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Minor) The coadministration of beta-agonists with clarithromycin may increase the risk for adverse effects, including prolongation of the QT interval. The action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by clarithromycin. Clarithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and the co-administration of salmeterol or indacaterol with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors can result in elevated concentrations and increased risk for potential cardiovascular adverse effects. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28238] [28318] [28467] [32901] [33156] [33925] [41231] Amphetamine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Anagrelide: (Minor) Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. Torsades de pointes (TdP) and ventricular tachycardia have been reported with anagrelide. In addition, dose-related increases in mean QTc and heart rate were observed in healthy subjects. A cardiovascular examination, including an ECG, should be obtained in all patients prior to initiating anagrelide therapy. Monitor patients during anagrelide therapy for cardiovascular effects and evaluate as necessary. Beta-agonists may rarely be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [30163] [33925] Apomorphine: (Minor) Beta-agonists should be used cautiously with apomorphine. Dose-related QTc prolongation is associated with therapeutic apomorphine exposure. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28661] [33925] Aripiprazole: (Minor) Use caution if administering aripiprazole with other drugs that may cause QT prolongation, including the short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs). QT prolongation has occurred during therapeutic use of aripiprazole and following overdose. SABAs may rarely cause adverse cardiovascular effects such as QT prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [42845] Arsenic Trioxide: (Minor) Beta-agonists should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with arsenic trioxide. Torsade de pointes (TdP), QT interval prolongation, and complete atrioventricular block have been reported with arsenic trioxide use. Avoid concomitant use of arsenic trioxide with other drugs that may cause QT interval prolongation; discontinue or select an alternative drug that does not prolong the QT interval prior to starting arsenic trioxide therapy. If concomitant drug use is unavoidable, frequently monitor electrocardiograms. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists (i.e., formoterol, arformoterol, indacaterol, olodaterol, salmeterol, umeclidinium; vilanterol) than with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28226] [28318] [28432] [28457] [33925] [41231] Artemether; Lumefantrine: (Minor) The administration of artemether; lumefantrine is associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Although there are no studies examining the effects of artemether; lumefantrine in patients receiving other QT prolonging drugs, coadministration of such drugs may result in additive QT prolongation and should be avoided. Consider ECG monitoring if other QT prolonging drugs must be used with or after artemether; lumefantrine treatment. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists (i.e., formoterol, arformoterol, indacaterol, olodaterol, salmeterol, umeclidinium; vilanterol) than with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [35401] [41231] Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Asenapine: (Minor) Asenapine has been associated with QT prolongation. According to the manufacturer of asenapine, the drug should be avoided in combination with other agents also known to have this effect. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists (i.e., formoterol, arformoterol, indacaterol, olodaterol, salmeterol, umeclidinium; vilanterol) than with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [36343] [41231] Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Dihydrocodeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Aspirin, ASA; Caffeine; Orphenadrine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Atenolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Atomoxetine: (Minor) Use caution when using atomoxetine in combination with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. QT prolongation has occurred during therapeutic use of atomoxetine and following overdose. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonistsas compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28405] [33925] [41231] [59321] Azithromycin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of azithromycin with short-acting beta-agonists due to the increased risk of QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain an ECG at baseline to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been spontaneously reported during azithromycin postmarketing surveillance. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28855] [33925] [43974] [65157] [65170] Bedaquiline: (Minor) Due to the potential for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), caution is advised when administering bedaquiline with beta-agonists. Bedaquiline has been reported to prolong the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Prior to initiating bedaquiline, obtain serum electrolyte concentrations and a baseline ECG. An ECG should also be performed at least 2, 12, and 24 weeks after starting bedaquiline therapy. [28318] [33925] [41231] [52746] Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Benzphetamine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Beta-adrenergic blockers: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Betaxolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Bismuth Subcitrate Potassium; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of short-acting beta-agonists and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The risk for QT/QTc prolongation may be greater with long-acting beta-agonists than short-acting beta-agonists [28318] [33925] [36894] Bismuth Subsalicylate; Metronidazole; Tetracycline: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of short-acting beta-agonists and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The risk for QT/QTc prolongation may be greater with long-acting beta-agonists than short-acting beta-agonists [28318] [33925] [36894] Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Bumetanide: (Moderate) Loop diuretics may potentiate hypokalemia and ECG changes seen with beta agonists. Hypokalemia due to beta agonists appears to be dose related and is more likely with high dose therapy. Caution is advised when loop diuretics are coadministered with high doses of beta agonists; potassium levels may need to be monitored. [33925] [43675] [44979] Buprenorphine: (Minor) Buprenorphine has been associated with QT prolongation and has a possible risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). FDA-approved labeling for some buprenorphine products recommend avoiding use with Class 1A and Class III antiarrhythmic medications while other labels recommend avoiding use with any drug that has the potential to prolong the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists (i.e., formoterol, arformoterol, indacaterol, olodaterol, salmeterol, fluticasone; vilanterol, umeclidinium; vilanterol) than with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [59321] [60270] Buprenorphine; Naloxone: (Minor) Buprenorphine has been associated with QT prolongation and has a possible risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). FDA-approved labeling for some buprenorphine products recommend avoiding use with Class 1A and Class III antiarrhythmic medications while other labels recommend avoiding use with any drug that has the potential to prolong the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists (i.e., formoterol, arformoterol, indacaterol, olodaterol, salmeterol, fluticasone; vilanterol, umeclidinium; vilanterol) than with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [59321] [60270] Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Cabotegravir; Rilpivirine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44376] Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Caffeine; Sodium Benzoate: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: (Moderate) Albuterol may cause additive hypokalemia when coadministered with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. These combinations can lead to symptomatic hypokalemia and associated ECG changes in some susceptible individuals. Monitoring of potassium levels would be advisable. [28267] Carteolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Carvedilol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Ceritinib: (Minor) Periodically monitor electrolytes and ECGs in patients receiving concomitant treatment with ceritinib and long-acting beta-agonists; an interruption of ceritinib therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Ceritinib causes concentration-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [57094] Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlordiazepoxide; Amitriptyline: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Chloroquine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of chloroquine with short-acting beta-agonists due to the increased risk of QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain an ECG at baseline to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. Chloroquine is associated with an increased risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP); the risk of QT prolongation is increased with higher chloroquine doses. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28229] [28532] [29758] [49951] [51793] [59321] [65157] [65170] Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Chlorpromazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines have been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes (TdP). This risk is generally higher at elevated drugs concentrations of phenothiazines. Chlorpromazine is specifically associated with an established risk of QT prolongation and TdP; case reports have included patients receiving therapeutic doses of chlorpromazine. Agents that prolong the QT interval could lead to torsade de pointes when combined with a phenothiazine, and therefore are generally not recommended for combined use. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with chlorpromazine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28415] [28416] [28417] [32901] [33925] [41231] [43065] Ciprofloxacin: (Minor) Rare cases of QT prolongation and torsade de pointe (TdP) have been reported with ciprofloxacin during post-marketing surveillance. Ciprofloxacin should be used with caution in patients receiving drugs that prolong the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with ciprofloxacin include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28225] [28318] [28419] [28775] [29833] [32901] [33925] [41231] [43411] Cisapride: (Contraindicated) QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including torsade de pointes (TdP) and death, have been reported with cisapride. Because of the potential for TdP, use of other drugs that might increase the QT interval is contraindicated with cisapride. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28978] [32901] [33925] [41231] [47221] Citalopram: (Minor) Citalopram causes dose-dependent QT interval prolongation. According to the manufacturer, concurrent use of citalopram with other drugs that prolong the QT interval is not recommended. If concurrent therapy is considered essential, ECG monitoring is recommended. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with citalopram include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28269] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] Clarithromycin: (Minor) The coadministration of beta-agonists with clarithromycin may increase the risk for adverse effects, including prolongation of the QT interval. The action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by clarithromycin. Clarithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and the co-administration of salmeterol or indacaterol with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors can result in elevated concentrations and increased risk for potential cardiovascular adverse effects. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28238] [28318] [28467] [32901] [33156] [33925] [41231] Clofazimine: (Minor) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation when clofazimine is administered with short-acting beta-agonists. QT prolongation and torsade de pointes have been reported in patients receiving clofazimine in combination with QT prolonging medications. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be lower with short-acting beta-agonists as compared to long-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [63936] Clomipramine: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Clozapine: (Minor) Treatment with clozapine has been associated with QT prolongation, torsade de pointes (TdP), cardiac arrest, and sudden death. The manufacturer of clozapine recommends caution during concurrent use with medications known to cause QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with clozapine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28262] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] Cocaine: (Moderate) Additive effects and increased toxicity might be observed when using cocaine with beta-agonists, which are sympathomimetic agents. The combined use of these agents may have the potential for additive adrenergic stimulation and side effects, such as nervousness, insomnia, palpitations, or adverse cardiovascular effects. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [5275] Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] (Minor) Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Use cautiously with promethazine, which has been reported to cause QT prolongation. [28225] [29318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [55578] Codeine; Promethazine: (Minor) Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Use cautiously with promethazine, which has been reported to cause QT prolongation. [28225] [29318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [55578] Crizotinib: (Minor) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes in patients receiving crizotinib concomitantly with short-acting beta-agonists. An interruption of therapy, dose reduction, or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary for crizotinib patients if QT prolongation occurs. Crizotinib has been associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [45458] Dasatinib: (Minor) Use dasatinib with caution in combination with beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. In vitro studies have shown that dasatinib has the potential to prolong the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32387] [32901] [33925] [41231] Degarelix: (Minor) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy outweigh the potential risks in patients receiving short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., degarelix) may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [46869] Desipramine: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Deutetrabenazine: (Minor) The risk of QT prolongation may be increased with coadministration of deutetrabenazine and short-acting beta-agonists. Deutetrabenazine may prolong the QT interval, but the degree of QT prolongation is not clinically significant when deutetrabenazine is administered within the recommended dosage range. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [61845] Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Dextroamphetamine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Dextromethorphan; Quinidine: (Minor) Beta-agonists should be used cautiously with quinidine. Quinidine administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [47357] Dichlorphenamide: (Moderate) Use dichlorphenamide and albuterol together with caution. Metabolic acidosis has been reported with dichlorphenamide and albuterol aerosol and inhalation solution. Concurrent use may increase the severity of metabolic acidosis. Measure sodium bicarbonate concentrations at baseline and periodically during dichlorphenamide treatment. If metabolic acidosis occurs or persists, consider reducing the dose or discontinuing dichlorphenamide therapy. [43674] [49951] [60122] Diethylpropion: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Digoxin: (Moderate) Mean decreases of 16% and 22% in serum digoxin levels were demonstrated after single-dose intravenous and oral administration of racemic albuterol, respectively, to normal volunteers who had received digoxin for 10 days. The clinical significance of these findings for patients with obstructive airway disease who are receiving albuterol or levalbuterol and digoxin on a chronic basis is unclear. The manufacturer of digoxin recommends measuring serum digoxin concentrations prior to initiation of albuterol or levalbuterol. Continue monitoring during concomitant treatment and increase the digoxin dose by 20 to 40% as necessary. [28272] [28532] Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Disopyramide: (Minor) Beta-agonists should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with disopyramide. Disopyramide administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28228] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] Dobutamine: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Dofetilide: (Minor) Coadministration of dofetilide and short-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Dofetilide, a Class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28221] [28318] [28432] [28457] [33925] Dolasetron: (Minor) Administer dolasetron with caution in combination with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. Dolasetron has been associated with a dose-dependent prolongation in the QT, PR, and QRS intervals on an electrocardiogram. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [42844] Dolutegravir; Rilpivirine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44376] Donepezil: (Minor) Use donepezil with caution in combination with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Case reports indicate that QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) can occur during donepezil therapy. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [41231] [59321] [59322] Donepezil; Memantine: (Minor) Use donepezil with caution in combination with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Case reports indicate that QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) can occur during donepezil therapy. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [41231] [59321] [59322] Dopamine: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Doxapram: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Doxepin: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Dronedarone: (Contraindicated) Dronedarone administration is associated with a dose-related increase in the QTc interval. The increase in QTc is approximately 10 milliseconds at doses of 400 mg twice daily (the FDA-approved dose) and up to 25 milliseconds at doses of 1600 mg twice daily. Although there are no studies examining the effects of dronedarone in patients receiving other QT prolonging drugs, coadministration of such drugs may result in additive QT prolongation. The concomitant use of dronedarone with other drugs that prolong the QTc may induce Torsade de Pointes (TdP) and is contraindicated. Contraindicated drugs include the beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [36101] [41231] Droperidol: (Minor) Droperidol should be administered with extreme caution to patients receiving other agents that may prolong the QT interval. Droperidol administration is associated with an established risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). In December 2001, the FDA issued a black box warning regarding the use of droperidol and its association with QT prolongation and potential for cardiac arrhythmias based on post-marketing surveillance data. According to the revised 2001 labeling for droperidol, any drug known to have potential to prolong the QT interval should not be coadministered with droperidol. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with droperidol include beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28235] [28236] [28318] [28737] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] [52189] Efavirenz: (Minor) Consider alternatives to efavirenz when coadministering with short-acting beta-agonists. QTc prolongation has been observed with the use of efavirenz. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28442] [33925] Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Minor) Consider alternatives to efavirenz when coadministering with short-acting beta-agonists. QTc prolongation has been observed with the use of efavirenz. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28442] [33925] Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Minor) Consider alternatives to efavirenz when coadministering with short-acting beta-agonists. QTc prolongation has been observed with the use of efavirenz. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28442] [33925] Eliglustat: (Minor) Eliglustat is predicted to cause PR, QRS, and/or QT prolongation at significantly elevated plasma concentrations. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with eliglustat include beta-agonists. [57803] Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44376] Emtricitabine; Rilpivirine; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44376] Encorafenib: (Minor) If encorafenib is coadministered with a short-acting beta-agonist, consider monitoring ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia prior to treatment. Encorafenib is associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [63317] Enflurane: (Minor) Enflurane, like other halogenated anesthetics, can prolong the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with halogenated anesthetics include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. The action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by a halogenated anesthetic. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28457] [28458] [32901] [33925] [41231] Entrectinib: (Minor) Coadministration of entrectinib and short-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Entrectinib has been associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [64567] Ephedrine: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Epinephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Ergotamine; Caffeine: (Moderate) Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-agonists. [66338] Eribulin: (Minor) Eribulin has been associated with QT prolongation. If eribulin and another drug that prolongs the QT interval must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended; closely monitor the patient. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [42449] Erythromycin: (Minor) Erythromycin administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with erythromycin include the beta-agonists. The effects of these beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [43258] [48676] [59321] Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Minor) Erythromycin administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with erythromycin include the beta-agonists. The effects of these beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [43258] [48676] [59321] Escitalopram: (Minor) Use escitalopram with caution in combination with short-acting beta agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Escitalopram has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with escitalopram. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28270] [28318] [33925] [41231] Esmolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) Loop diuretics may potentiate hypokalemia and ECG changes seen with beta agonists. Hypokalemia due to beta agonists appears to be dose related and is more likely with high dose therapy. Caution is advised when loop diuretics are coadministered with high doses of beta agonists; potassium levels may need to be monitored. [33925] [43675] [44979] Ezogabine: (Minor) Use caution during concurrent use of ezogabine and short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Ezogabine has been associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44800] [44979] Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Fingolimod: (Minor) Fingolimod initiation results in decreased heart rate and the drug may prolong the QT interval. After the first fingolimod dose, overnight monitoring with continuous ECG in a medical facility is advised for patients taking QT prolonging drugs with a known risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Fingolimod has not been studied in patients treated with drugs that prolong the QT interval, however, drugs that prolong the QT interval have been associated with cases of TdP in patients with bradycardia. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with fingolimod include the beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [41231] [41823] [44979] Flecainide: (Minor) Flecainide is a Class IC antiarrhythmic associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes (TdP); flecainide increases the QT interval, but largely due to prolongation of the QRS interval. Although causality for TdP has not been established for flecainide, patients receiving concurrent drugs which have the potential for QT prolongation may have an increased risk of developing proarrhythmias. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with flecainide include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [23774] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] Fluconazole: (Minor) Use fluconazole with caution in combination with beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Fluconazole has been associated with QT prolongation and rare cases of torsade de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28674] [32901] [33925] [41231] Fluoxetine: (Minor) Use fluoxetine with caution in combination with short-acting beta-agonists. Coadministration may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation and TdP have been reported in patients treated with fluoxetine. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32127] [33925] [41231] Fluphenazine: (Minor) Fluphenazine, a phenothiazine, is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. This risk is generally higher at elevated drugs concentrations of phenothiazines. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with fluphenazine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28415] [32901] [33925] [41231] Fluvoxamine: (Minor) There may be an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) during concurrent use of fluvoxamine and short-acting beta-agonists. Coadminister with caution. QT prolongation and TdP have been reported during postmarketing use of fluvoxamine. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [50507] Foscarnet: (Major) When possible, avoid concurrent use of foscarnet with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval, such as short-acting beta-agonists. Foscarnet has been associated with postmarketing reports of both QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. If these drugs are administered together, obtain an electrocardiogram and electrolyte concentrations before and periodically during treatment. [28318] [28377] [33925] Fostemsavir: (Minor) Use beta-agonists and fostemsavir together with caution due to the potential for QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. Supratherapeutic doses of fostemsavir (2,400 mg twice daily, four times the recommended daily dose) have been shown to cause QT prolongation. Fostemsavir causes dose-dependent QT prolongation. [28318] [33925] [65666] Furosemide: (Moderate) Loop diuretics may potentiate hypokalemia and ECG changes seen with beta agonists. Hypokalemia due to beta agonists appears to be dose related and is more likely with high dose therapy. Caution is advised when loop diuretics are coadministered with high doses of beta agonists; potassium levels may need to be monitored. [33925] [43675] [44979] Gemifloxacin: (Minor) Use gemifloxacin and short-acting beta-agonists together with caution due to increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Gemifloxacin may prolong the QT interval in some patients. The maximal change in the QTc interval occurs approximately 5 to 10 hours following oral administration of gemifloxacin. The likelihood of QTc prolongation may increase with increasing dose of the drug; therefore, the recommended dose should not be exceeded especially in patients with renal or hepatic impairment where the Cmax and AUC are slightly higher. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28419] [28420] [28424] [33925] [41231] Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin: (Minor) Coadministration of gemtuzumab ozogamicin with short-acting beta-agonists may increase the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Although QT interval prolongation has not been reported with gemtuzumab, it has been reported with other drugs that contain calicheamicin. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [62292] Gilteritinib: (Minor) Use caution and monitor for additive QT prolongation if concurrent use of gilteritinib and a short-acting beta-agonist is necessary. Gilteritinib has been associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [63787] Glasdegib: (Minor) Consider increased frequency of ECG monitoring if coadministration of glasdegib and short-acting beta-agonists is necessary. Glasdegib therapy may result in QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias including ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [63777] Goserelin: (Minor) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., goserelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving short-acting beta-agonists. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28592] [33925] Granisetron: (Minor) Use granisetron with caution in combination with short-acting beta-agonists due to the risk of QT prolongation. Granisetron has been associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [31723] [32901] [33925] [41231] Green Tea: (Moderate) Some green tea products contain caffeine, which is a CNS-stimulant. Additive effects are expected if used in combination with other CNS stimulants including the beta-agonists. [27950] Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Halofantrine: (Contraindicated) Halofantrine is considered to have a well-established risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Halofantrine should be avoided in patients receiving drugs which may induce QT prolongation. These drugs include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with cardiovascular effects, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [4951] [4968] [5618] Haloperidol: (Minor) Caution is advisable when combining haloperidol concurrently with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been observed during haloperidol treatment. Excessive doses (particularly in the overdose setting) or IV administration of haloperidol may be associated with a higher risk of QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [23500] [23779] [28225] [28307] [28318] [28415] [28416] [32901] [33925] [41231] Halothane: (Minor) Halothane, like other halogenated anesthetics, can prolong the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with halogenated anesthetics include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. The action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by a halogenated anesthetic. [28318] [28457] [28458] [32901] [33925] [41231] Histrelin: (Minor) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., histrelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving short-acting beta-agonists. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [30369] [33925] Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Hydroxychloroquine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of short-acting beta-agonists and hydroxychloroquine due to an increased risk of QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain an ECG at baseline to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. Hydroxychloroquine prolongs the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [33925] [41806] [49951] [51793] [59321] [65157] [65170] Hydroxyzine: (Minor) Caution is recommended if hydroxyzine is administered with short-acting beta-agonists due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Postmarketing data indicate that hydroxyzine causes QT prolongation and TdP. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [47129] Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Ibutilide: (Minor) Ibutilide administration can cause QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP); proarrhythmic events should be anticipated. The potential for proarrhythmic events with ibutilide increases with the coadministration of other drugs that prolong the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [41830] Iloperidone: (Minor) Iloperidone has been associated with QT prolongation; however, torsade de pointes (TdP) has not been reported. According to the manufacturer, since iloperidone may prolong the QT interval, it should be avoided in combination with other agents also known to have this effect. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be avoided with iloperidone include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [36146] [41231] Imipramine: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: (Minor) Coadministration of inotuzumab ozogamicin with short-acting beta-agonists may increase the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Inotuzumab has been associated with QT interval prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [62245] Isocarboxazid: (Major) Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) due to their sympathomimetic effects. Weigh the risks of coadministration, and where possible, allow a washout period after discontinuation of the MAOI before instituring beta-agonist treatment or vice-versa. The cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use of MAOIs. Close observation for such effects is prudent, particularly if beta-agonists are administered within 2 weeks of stopping the MAOI. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate. [27957] [28309] [28467] [29656] [30438] [32901] [44979] [49951] [51022] [54633] [57710] Isoflurane: (Minor) Isoflurane, like other halogenated anesthetics, can prolong the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with halogenated anesthetics include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. The action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by a halogenated anesthetic. [28318] [28457] [28458] [32901] [33925] [41231] Isoproterenol: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Itraconazole: (Minor) Use itraconazole with caution in combination with beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Itraconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [40233] [41231] [57441] Ivosidenib: (Minor) Coadministration of ivosidenib with short-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of QT prolongation. If concomitant use is necessary, monitor ECGs for QTc prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct any electrolyte abnormalities as clinically appropriate. An interruption of therapy and dose reduction of ivosidenib may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Prolongation of the QTc interval and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients treated with ivosidenib. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [63368] Ketoconazole: (Minor) Coadministration may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Ketoconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists such as albuterol. [27982] [28467] [33925] [50004] Labetalol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Minor) The coadministration of beta-agonists with clarithromycin may increase the risk for adverse effects, including prolongation of the QT interval. The action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by clarithromycin. Clarithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and the co-administration of salmeterol or indacaterol with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors can result in elevated concentrations and increased risk for potential cardiovascular adverse effects. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28238] [28318] [28467] [32901] [33156] [33925] [41231] Lapatinib: (Minor) Monitor for evidence of QT prolongation if lapatinib is administered with short-acting beta-agonists. Lapatinib has been associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation; ventricular arrhythmias and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been reported in postmarketing experience with lapatinib. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33192] [33925] [41231] Lefamulin: (Minor) Coadministration of lefamulin and short-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Lefamulin has a concentration dependent QTc prolongation effect. The pharmacodynamic interaction potential to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram between lefamulin and other drugs that effect cardiac conduction is unknown. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [64576] Lenvatinib: (Minor) Beta-agonists should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with lenvatinib. QT prolongation was reported in patients with radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAI-refractory DTC) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial after receiving lenvatinib daily at the recommended dose; the QT/QTc interval was not prolonged, however, after a single 32 mg dose (1.3 times the recommended daily dose) in healthy subjects. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [58782] Leuprolide: (Minor) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., leuprolide) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving short-acting beta-agonists. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [43800] Leuprolide; Norethindrone: (Minor) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., leuprolide) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving short-acting beta-agonists. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [43800] Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Levobunolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Levofloxacin: (Minor) Levofloxacin should be used cautiously with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk for QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. Levofloxacin has been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP. Although extremely rare, TdP has been reported during postmarketing surveillance of levofloxacin. [28318] [28421] [32901] [33925] [41231] Levomethadyl: (Contraindicated) Levomethadyl is associated with an established risk of QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes, particularly at high drug concentrations. Levomethadyl is contraindicated in combination with other agents that may prolong the QT interval. Agents with potential to prolong the QT interval include the beta agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [4951] [5079] [5081] [5146] Levothyroxine: (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease. [43942] [43952] Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Porcine): (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease. [43942] [43952] Levothyroxine; Liothyronine (Synthetic): (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease. [43942] [43952] Linezolid: (Moderate) Linezolid may enhance the hypertensive effect of beta-agonists. Closely monitor for increased blood pressure during coadministration. Linezolid is an antibiotic that is also a weak, reversible nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Therefore, linezolid has the potential for interaction with adrenergic agents, such as the beta-agonists. [28599] [32308] Liothyronine: (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease. [43942] [43952] Lisdexamfetamine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Lithium: (Minor) Lithium should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with beta-agonists. Lithium has been associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [59809] [59810] [59811] Lofexidine: (Minor) Monitor ECG if lofexidine is coadministered with short-acting beta-agonists due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. Lofexidine prolongs the QT interval. In addition, there are postmarketing reports of torsade de pointes. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be lower with short-acting beta-agonists as compared to long-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [63161] Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Loop diuretics may potentiate hypokalemia and ECG changes seen with beta agonists. Hypokalemia due to beta agonists appears to be dose related and is more likely with high dose therapy. Caution is advised when loop diuretics are coadministered with high doses of beta agonists; potassium levels may need to be monitored. [33925] [43675] [44979] Loperamide: (Minor) Coadministration of loperamide with beta-agonist may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). At high doses, loperamide has been associated with serious cardiac toxicities, including syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, TdP and cardiac arrest. Beta-agonists have also been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists (i.e., formoterol, arformoterol, indacaterol, olodaterol, salmeterol, fluticasone; vilanterol, umeclidinium; vilanterol) than with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [60864] Loperamide; Simethicone: (Minor) Coadministration of loperamide with beta-agonist may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). At high doses, loperamide has been associated with serious cardiac toxicities, including syncope, ventricular tachycardia, QT prolongation, TdP and cardiac arrest. Beta-agonists have also been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists (i.e., formoterol, arformoterol, indacaterol, olodaterol, salmeterol, fluticasone; vilanterol, umeclidinium; vilanterol) than with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [60864] Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Major) Avoid coadministration of lopinavir with short-acting beta-agonists due to the potential for additive QT prolongation. If use together is necessary, obtain a baseline ECG to assess initial QT interval and determine frequency of subsequent ECG monitoring, avoid any non-essential QT prolonging drugs, and correct electrolyte imbalances. Lopinavir is associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28341] [33925] [65157] [65170] Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Macimorelin: (Minor) Concurrent use of macimorelin with short-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of developing torsade de pointes-type ventricular tachycardia. Sufficient washout time of drugs that are known to prolong the QT interval prior to administration of macimorelin is recommended. Treatment with macimorelin has been associated with an increase in the corrected QT (QTc) interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [62723] Maprotiline: (Minor) Maprotiline has been reported to prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Cases of long QT syndrome and torsade de pointes (TdP) have been described with maprotiline use, but rarely occur when the drug is used alone in normal prescribed doses and in the absence of other known risk factors for QT prolongation. Limited data are available regarding the safety of maprotiline in combination with other QT-prolonging drugs. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with maprotiline include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28759] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] Mefloquine: (Minor) While there is evidence that the use of halofantrine after mefloquine causes a significant lengthening of the QT interval, mefloquine alone has not been reported to cause QT prolongation. However, due to the lack of clinical data, mefloquine should be used with caution in patients receiving drugs that prolong the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with mefloquine include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists may cause adverse cardiovascular effects, usually with higher doses or when associated with hypokalemia. [28301] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] Meperidine; Promethazine: (Minor) Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Use cautiously with promethazine, which has been reported to cause QT prolongation. [28225] [29318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [55578] Mesoridazine: (Contraindicated) Mesoridazine is associated with an established risk of QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes (TdP). Agents that prolong the QT interval could lead to torsade de pointes are contraindicated with mesoridazine and include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28225] [28318] [29096] [32901] [33925] [41231] Methacholine: (Major) Discontinue use of short-acting beta-agonists 6 hours before a methacholine challenge test. Beta-agonists inhibit the airway response to methacholine. [43792] Methadone: (Minor) The need to coadminister methadone with drugs known to prolong the QT interval should be done with extreme caution and a careful assessment of treatment risks versus benefits. Methadone is considered to be associated with an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), especially at higher doses (> 200 mg/day but averaging approximately 400 mg/day in adult patients). Methadone inhibits cardiac potassium channels and prolongs the QT interval. Most cases involve patients being treated for pain with large, multiple daily doses of methadone, although cases have been reported in patients receiving doses commonly used for maintenance treatment of opioid addiction. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with methadone include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28319] [28320] [28321] [28322] [32901] [33136] [33925] [41231] [44979] Methamphetamine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Methazolamide: (Moderate) Albuterol may cause additive hypokalemia when coadministered with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. These combinations can lead to symptomatic hypokalemia and associated ECG changes in some susceptible individuals. Monitoring of potassium levels would be advisable. [28267] Metoprolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Metronidazole: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of short-acting beta-agonists and metronidazole although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The risk for QT/QTc prolongation may be greater with long-acting beta-agonists than short-acting beta-agonists [28318] [33925] [36894] Midodrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Midostaurin: (Minor) Concomitant use may result in additive effects on the QT interval. In clinical trials, QT prolongation was reported in patients who received midostaurin as single-agent therapy or in combination with cytarabine and daunorubicin. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [61906] Mifepristone: (Minor) Mifepristone has been associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. There is no experience with high exposure or concomitant use with other QT prolonging drugs. To minimize the risk of QT prolongation, the lowest effective dose of mifepristone should always be used. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with mifepristone include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [48697] Mirtazapine: (Minor) There may be an increased risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) during concurrent use of mirtazapine and short-acting beta-agonists. Coadminister with caution. Cases of QT prolongation, TdP, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death have been reported during postmarketing use of mirtazapine, primarily following overdose or in patients with other risk factors for QT prolongation, including concomitant use of other medications associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [40942] Mobocertinib: (Minor) QT/QTc prolongation can occur with concomitant use of mobocertinib and short-acting beta-agonists although the risk of developing torsade de pointes (TdP) is low. Additional steps to minimize the risk of QT/QTc interval prolongation and TdP, such as avoidance, electrolyte monitoring and repletion, and ECG monitoring, may be considered in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. The risk for QT/QTc prolongation may be greater with long-acting beta-agonists than short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [66990] Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: (Major) Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) due to their sympathomimetic effects. Weigh the risks of coadministration, and where possible, allow a washout period after discontinuation of the MAOI before instituring beta-agonist treatment or vice-versa. The cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use of MAOIs. Close observation for such effects is prudent, particularly if beta-agonists are administered within 2 weeks of stopping the MAOI. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate. [27957] [28309] [28467] [29656] [30438] [32901] [44979] [49951] [51022] [54633] [57710] Moxifloxacin: (Minor) Prolongation of the QT interval has been reported with administration of moxifloxacin. Post-marketing surveillance has identified very rare cases of ventricular arrhythmias including torsade de pointes (TdP), usually in patients with severe underlying proarrhythmic conditions. The likelihood of QT prolongation may increase with increasing concentrations of moxifloxacin, therefore the recommended dose or infusion rate should not be exceeded. According to the manufacturer, moxifloxacin should be avoided in patients taking drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation include beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may cause adverse cardiovascular effects, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28423] [32901] [33925] [41231] Nadolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Nebivolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Nilotinib: (Minor) Coadministration of nilotinib with short-acting beta-agonists may increase the potential for additive QT prolongation. Sudden death and QT interval prolongation have occurred in patients who received nilotinib therapy. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [58766] Norepinephrine: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Norfloxacin: (Minor) Quinolones have been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Although extremely rare, TdP has been reported during post-marketing surveillance of norfloxacin. These reports generally involved patients with concurrent medical conditions or concomitant medications that may have been contributory. Norfloxacin should be used cautiously with other agents that may prolong the QT interval such as the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28225] [28432] [28457] [29818] Nortriptyline: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Octreotide: (Minor) Use octreotide with caution in combination with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists [such as albuterol]. Arrhythmias, sinus bradycardia, and conduction disturbances have occurred during octreotide therapy. Since bradycardia is a risk factor for development of torsade de pointes (TdP), the potential occurrence of bradycardia during octreotide administration could theoretically increase the risk of TdP in patients receiving drugs that prolong the QT interval. [28318] [28432] [29113] [30624] [32901] [33925] [41231] Ofloxacin: (Minor) Ofloxacin should be used cautiously with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists [such as albuterol]. Quinolones have been associated with a risk of QT prolongation and TdP. Although extremely rare, TdP has been reported during postmarketing surveillance of ofloxacin. These reports generally involved patients with concurrent medical conditions or concomitant medications that may have been contributory. [28225] [28318] [28432] [28457] [29818] [30738] [32901] [33925] [41231] Olanzapine: (Minor) Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances. Therefore, caution is advised when administering olanzapine with drugs having an established causal association with QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28785] [32732] [32734] [32745] [32746] [32901] [33925] [41231] Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Minor) Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances. Therefore, caution is advised when administering olanzapine with drugs having an established causal association with QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28785] [32732] [32734] [32745] [32746] [32901] [33925] [41231] (Minor) Use fluoxetine with caution in combination with short-acting beta-agonists. Coadministration may increase the risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). QT prolongation and TdP have been reported in patients treated with fluoxetine. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32127] [33925] [41231] Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Minor) Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances. Therefore, caution is advised when administering olanzapine with drugs having an established causal association with QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28785] [32732] [32734] [32745] [32746] [32901] [33925] [41231] Ondansetron: (Minor) Ondansetron has been associated with QT prolongation and post-marketing reports of torsade de pointes (TdP). Among 42 patients receiving a 4 mg IV bolus dose of ondansetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting, the mean maximal QTc interval prolongation was 20 +/- 13 msec at the third minute after administration (p < 0.0001). Risk for QT prolongation increases with increased dosage, and a 32 mg IV dose must no longer be used for prevention of chemotherapy induced emesis. If ondansetron and another drug that prolongs the QT interval must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with ondansetron include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [31266] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] Osilodrostat: (Minor) Monitor ECGs in patients receiving osilodrostat with short-acting beta-agonists. Osilodrostat is associated with dose-dependent QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be lower with short-acting beta-agonists as compared to long-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [65098] Osimertinib: (Minor) Use osimertinib and short-acting beta-agonists together with caution due to the risk of QT prolongation. The manufacturer of osimertinib recommends avoiding coadministration with other drugs that prolong the QT, if possible; if unavoidable, periodically monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes. An interruption of osimertinib therapy with dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy may be necessary if QT prolongation occurs. Concentration-dependent QTc prolongation occurred during clinical trials of osimertinib. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [60297] Oxaliplatin: (Minor) Monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes if coadministration is necessary; correct electrolyte abnormalities prior to administration of oxaliplatin. QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias including fatal torsade de pointes have been reported with oxaliplatin use in postmarketing experience. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists such as albuterol, levalbuterol, metaproterenol, pirbuterol, and terbutaline. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [41958] Ozanimod: (Minor) Coadministration of ozanimod with short-acting beta-agonists may increase the potential for additive QT prolongation. Ozanimod initiation may result in a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays. Ozanimod has not been studied in patients taking concurrent QT prolonging drugs; however, QT prolonging drugs have been associated with torsade de pointes in patients with bradycardia. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [65169] Paliperidone: (Minor) Paliperidone has been associated with QT prolongation; torsade de pointes (TdP) and ventricular fibrillation have been reported in the setting of overdose. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with paliperidone include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Closely monitor patients with known risk factors for cardiac disease or arrhythmias during coadministration. [28318] [33925] [40936] Panobinostat: (Minor) QT prolongation has been reported with panobinostat therapy in patients with multiple myeloma in a clinical trial; use of panobinostat with other agents that prolong the QT interval is not recommended. Obtain an electrocardiogram at baseline and periodically during treatment. Hold panobinostat if the QTcF increases to >= 480 milliseconds during therapy; permanently discontinue if QT prolongation does not resolve. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with panobinostat include beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [41231] [58821] Pasireotide: (Minor) Use caution when using pasireotide in combination with beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. QT prolongation has occurred with pasireotide at therapeutic and supra-therapeutic doses. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [52611] Pazopanib: (Minor) Coadministration of pazopanib and other drugs that prolong the QT interval is not advised; pazopanib has been reported to prolong the QT interval. If pazopanib and the other drug must be continued, closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with pazopanib include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [37098] [41231] Pemoline: (Major) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Penbutolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Pentamidine: (Minor) Pentamidine has been associated with QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) should be used cautiously with pentamidine. Beta-agonists, such as albuterol, may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QTprolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [23620] [23778] [28318] [28419] [28879] [32901] [33925] [41231] Perphenazine: (Minor) Perphenazine, a phenothiazine, is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with perphenazine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may cause adverse cardiovascular effects such as QT prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28415] [32901] [33925] [41231] Perphenazine; Amitriptyline: (Minor) Perphenazine, a phenothiazine, is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with perphenazine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may cause adverse cardiovascular effects such as QT prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [28415] [32901] [33925] [41231] (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Phendimetrazine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Phenelzine: (Major) Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) due to their sympathomimetic effects. Weigh the risks of coadministration, and where possible, allow a washout period after discontinuation of the MAOI before instituring beta-agonist treatment or vice-versa. The cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use of MAOIs. Close observation for such effects is prudent, particularly if beta-agonists are administered within 2 weeks of stopping the MAOI. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate. [27957] [28309] [28467] [29656] [30438] [32901] [44979] [49951] [51022] [54633] [57710] Phentermine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Phentermine; Topiramate: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Pimavanserin: (Minor) Pimavanserin may cause QT prolongation and should be used with caution with beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists than with short-acting beta-agonists. Beta-agonists should be administered with caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [60748] Pimozide: (Contraindicated) Pimozide is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) and should not be used with other drugs that might prolong the QT interval. Because of the potential for TdP, use of beta-agonists with pimozide is contraindicated. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [43463] Pindolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Pitolisant: (Minor) Coadministration of pitolisant and short-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Pitolisant prolongs the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [64562] Ponesimod: (Minor) Concomitant use of ponesimod and short-acting beta-agonist may increase the risk of additive bradycardia, QT prolongation, and torsade de pointes (TdP). Ponesimod initiation may result in a transient decrease in heart rate and atrioventricular conduction delays. Ponesimod has not been studied in patients taking concurrent QT prolonging drugs; however, QT prolonging drugs have been associated with TdP in patients with bradycardia. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [66527] Posaconazole: (Minor) Use posaconazole with caution in combination with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Posaconazole has been associated with prolongation of the QT interval as well as rare cases of torsade de pointes. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32723] [32901] [33925] [41231] Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Primaquine: (Minor) Exercise caution when administering primaquine in combination with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Primaquine is associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [41231] [41984] Procainamide: (Minor) Beta-agonists should be used cautiously with procainamide. Procainamide administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28250] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] Procarbazine: (Major) Procarbazine has MAOI activity and the cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use of MAOIs. Although no data are available, procarbazine may interact similarly. Close observation for such effects is prudent, particularly if beta-agonists are administered within two weeks of stopping the MAOI. [28318] [28625] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] Prochlorperazine: (Minor) Phenothiazines like prochlorperazine have been associated with a risk of QT prolongation. This risk is generally higher at elevated drugs concentrations. Agents that prolong the QT interval and that should be used cautiously with prochlorperazine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28225] [28318] [28415] [32901] [33925] [41231] Promethazine: (Minor) Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Use cautiously with promethazine, which has been reported to cause QT prolongation. [28225] [29318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [55578] Promethazine; Dextromethorphan: (Minor) Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Use cautiously with promethazine, which has been reported to cause QT prolongation. [28225] [29318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [55578] Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] (Minor) Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Use cautiously with promethazine, which has been reported to cause QT prolongation. [28225] [29318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [55578] Propafenone: (Minor) Propafenone is a Class IC antiarrhythmic which increases the QT interval, but largely due to prolongation of the QRS interval.. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with propafenone include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28287] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] Propranolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Protriptyline: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Moderate) Caution and close observation should be used when albuterol is used concurrently with other adrenergic sympathomimetics, administered by any route, to avoid potential for increased cardiovascular effects. [28532] Quetiapine: (Minor) Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that quetiapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances. According to the manufacturer, use of quetiapine should be avoided in combination with drugs known to increase the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with quetiapine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [29118] [32901] [33068] [33072] [33074] [33925] [41231] Quinidine: (Minor) Beta-agonists should be used cautiously with quinidine. Quinidine administration is associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [47357] Quinine: (Minor) Quinine has been associated with QT prolongation and rare cases of torsade de pointes (TdP). Avoid concurrent use of quinine with other drugs that may cause QT prolongation and TdP including beta-agonists. [28318] [31403] [33925] [41231] Racepinephrine: (Major) Racepinephrine is a sympathomimetic drug with agonist actions at both the alpha and beta receptors. Patients using prescription beta-agonists for the treatment of asthma should generally avoid the concurrent use of racepinephrine inhalation since additive cardiovascular and nervous system adverse effects are possible, some which may be undesirable. [28532] [54280] [54298] Ranolazine: (Minor) Ranolazine is associated with dose- and plasma concentration-related increases in the QTc interval. The mean increase in QTc is about 6 milliseconds, measured at the Tmax of the maximum dosage (1000 mg PO twice daily). However, in 5% of the population studied, increases in the QTc of at least 15 milliseconds have been reported. Although there are no studies examining the effects of ranolazine in patients receiving other QT prolonging drugs, coadministration of such drugs may result in additive QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with ranolazine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [31938] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] Rasagiline: (Moderate) The concomitant use of rasagiline and sympathomimetic agents was not allowed in clinical studies; therefore, caution is advised during concurrent use of rasagiline and respiratory adrenergic agents (e.g., the beta-agonists). Although sympathomimetic agents are contraindicated for use with traditional non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), hypertensive reactions generally are not expected to occur during concurrent use with rasagiline because of the selective monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibition of rasagiline at manufacturer recommended doses. However, the cardiovascular effects of beta-2 agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use of MAOIs. At least one case of hypertension occurred in a patient with previous episodes of high blood pressure who was receiving albuterol and selegiline, a selective MAOI related to rasagiline, concurrently. Close observation for such effects is prudent, particularly if beta-2 agonists are administered during or within 2 weeks of use of an MAOI. [28309] [28467] [28532] [32223] [32901] [33631] Relugolix: (Minor) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy outweigh the potential risks in patients receiving other QT prolonging agents. Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., relugolix) may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [66183] Relugolix; Estradiol; Norethindrone acetate: (Minor) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy outweigh the potential risks in patients receiving other QT prolonging agents. Androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., relugolix) may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [66183] Ribociclib: (Minor) Coadministration may result in additive effects on the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval such as ribociclib. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [61816] Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Minor) Coadministration may result in additive effects on the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval such as ribociclib. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [61816] Rilpivirine: (Minor) Caution is advised when administering rilpivirine with short-acting beta-agonists as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Supratherapeutic doses of rilpivirine (75 to 300 mg/day) have caused QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44376] Risperidone: (Minor) Use risperidone and short-acting beta-agonists together with caution due to the potential for additive QT prolongation and risk of torsade de pointes (TdP). Reports of QT prolongation and TdP during risperidone therapy are noted by the manufacturer, primarily in the overdosage setting. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28225] [28414] [32901] [41231] [44979] Romidepsin: (Minor) Romidepsin has been reported to prolong the QT interval. If romidepsin must be coadministered with another drug that prolongs the QT interval, appropriate cardiovascular monitoring precautions should be considered, such as the monitoring of serum electrolytes and the ECG at baseline and periodically during treatment. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with romidepsin include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [37292] [41231] Saquinavir: (Minor) Saquinavir boosted with ritonavir increases the QT interval in a dose-dependent fashion, which may increase the risk for serious arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes (TdP). Avoid administering saquinavir boosted with ritonavir with other drugs that may prolong the QT interval, such as beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. If no acceptable alternative therapy is available, perform a baseline ECG prior to initiation of concomitant therapy and carefully follow monitoring recommendations. [28318] [28995] [32901] [33156] [33925] [41231] Selpercatinib: (Minor) Monitor ECGs more frequently for QT prolongation if coadministration of selpercatinib with short-acting beta-agonists is necessary due to the risk of additive QT prolongation. Concentration-dependent QT prolongation has been observed with selpercatinib therapy. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [65387] Sertraline: (Minor) Use caution and monitor patients for QT prolongation when administering short-acting beta-agonists with sertraline. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists versus short-acting beta-agonists. Sertraline's FDA-approved labeling recommends avoiding concomitant use with drugs known to prolong the QTc interval; however, the risk of sertraline-induced QT prolongation is generally considered to be low in clinical practice. Its effect on QTc interval is minimal (typically less than 5 msec), and the drug has been used safely in patients with cardiac disease (e.g., recent myocardial infarction, unstable angina, chronic heart failure). [28318] [28343] [33925] [64391] [64392] [64394] [64395] [64396] Sevoflurane: (Minor) Sevoflurane, like other halogenated anesthetics, can prolong the QT interval. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with halogenated anesthetics include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. The action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by a halogenated anesthetic. [28318] [28457] [28458] [32901] [33925] [41231] Siponimod: (Minor) In general, do not initiate treatment with siponimod in patients receiving prochlorperazine due to the potential for QT prolongation. Consult a cardiologist regarding appropriate monitoring if siponimod use is required. Siponimod therapy prolonged the QT interval at recommended doses in a clinical study. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be lower with short-acting beta-agonists compared to long-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [64031] Solifenacin: (Minor) Solifenacin has been associated dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval. Torsade de pointes (TdP) has been reported with post-marketing use, although causality was not determined. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. The action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [30515] [32901] [33925] [41231] Sorafenib: (Minor) Use caution if coadministration of sorafenib with short-acting beta-agonists is necessary due to the risk of QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. Sorafenib is also associated with QTc prolongation. [28318] [31832] [32901] [33156] [33925] [41231] Sotalol: (Moderate) Use caution when administering sotalol together with beta-agonists. The effects of beta-agonists can be reduced with concurrent use of sotalol, which is a non-selective beta-blocker. Monitor for altered therapeutic response to the beta-agonist. In addition, sotalol is associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Proarrhythmic events should be anticipated after initiation of therapy and after each upward dosage adjustment. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28234] [28318] [33925] [41231] Sunitinib: (Minor) Monitor patients for QT prolongation if coadministration of short-acting beta-agonists with sunitinib is necessary. Sunitinib can cause dose-dependent QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [31970] [33925] Tacrolimus: (Minor) Consider ECG and electrolyte monitoring periodically during treatment if tacrolimus is administered with a short-acting beta-agonist. Tacrolimus may prolong the QT interval and cause torsade de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [27353] [27354] [28225] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] Tamoxifen: (Minor) Caution is advised with the concomitant use of tamoxifen and short-acting beta-agonists due to an increased risk of QT prolongation. Tamoxifen has been reported to prolong the QT interval, usually in overdose or when used in high doses. Rare case reports of QT prolongation have also been described when tamoxifen is used at lower doses. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be lower with short-acting beta-agonists compared with long-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [61870] [61871] [61872] [63589] Telavancin: (Minor) Due to increased risk of QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP), use caution if telavancin is administered with a beta-agonist. Telavancin has been associated with QT prolongation. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [36615] [41231] Telithromycin: (Minor) Use caution if short-acting beta-agonists are administered with telithromycin as concurrent use may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Telithromycin is associated with QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP). Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28156] [28318] [32901] [33156] [33925] [41231] Tetrabenazine: (Minor) Tetrabenazine causes a small increase in the corrected QT interval (QTc). The manufacturer recommends avoiding concurrent use of tetrabenazine with other drugs known to prolong QTc, such as beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32901] [33925] [34389] [41231] Theophylline, Aminophylline: (Moderate) Beta-agonists are commonly used in conjunction with aminophylline or theophylline therapy. Concomitant use can cause additive CNS stimulation; some patients may experience tremor or nervousness with combined use. More serious effects are rare, but may result in additive cardiovascular effects such as increased blood pressure and heart rate. Methylxanthine derivatives, ((e.g., theophylline and aminophylline) may rarely aggravate the hypokalemic effect seen with beta-agonists. Consider checking potassium levels if clinically indicated. [28318] [32901] [44026] [44979] [50760] (Moderate) Beta-agonists are commonly used in conjunction with aminophylline or theophylline therapy. Concomitant use can cause additive CNS stimulation; some patients may experience tremor or nervousness with combined use. More serious effects are rare, but may result in additive cardiovascular effects such as increased blood pressure and heart rate. Methylxanthine derivatives, (e.g., theophylline, aminophylline) may rarely aggravate the hypokalemic effect seen with beta-agonists. Consider checking potassium levels if clinically indicated. [28318] [32901] [44026] [44979] [50760] Thiazide diuretics: (Minor) Hypokalemia associated with thiazide diuretics can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is unknown, use caution when coadministering beta-agonists with thiazide diuretics and monitor serum potassium as clinically indicated. [28532] [33925] [43675] [44979] Thioridazine: (Contraindicated) Thioridazine is associated with a well-established risk of QT prolongation and torsades de pointes (TdP). Thioridazine is considered contraindicated for use along with agents that, when combined with a phenothiazine, may prolong the QT interval and increase the risk of TdP, and/or cause orthostatic hypotension. Because of the potential for QR prolongation, use of beta-agonists with thioridazine is contraindicated. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28225] [28293] [28318] [28415] [28416] [28417] [32901] [33925] [41231] [43069] Thyroid hormones: (Moderate) Based on the cardiovascular stimulatory effects of beta-agonists and other sympathomimetics, concomitant use with thyroid hormones might enhance the effects on the cardiovascular system. Concurrent use may increase the effects of sympathomimetics or thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones may increase the risk of coronary insufficiency when sympathomimetic agents are administered to patients with coronary artery disease. [43942] [43952] Timolol: (Moderate) Use of a beta-1-selective (cardioselective) beta blocker is recommended whenever possible when this combination of drugs must be used together. Monitor the patients lung and cardiovascular status closely. Beta-agonists and beta-blockers are pharmacologic opposites, and will counteract each other to some extent when given concomitantly, especially when non-cardioselective beta blockers are used. Beta-blockers will block the pulmonary effects of inhaled beta-agonists, and in some cases may exacerbate bronchospasm in patients with reactive airways. Beta-agonists can sometimes increase heart rate or have other cardiovascular effects, particularly when used in high doses or if hypokalemia is present. [28618] [43675] [44979] [51834] [58220] Tolterodine: (Minor) Tolterodine has been associated with dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval, especially in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers. This should be taken into consideration when prescribing tolterodine to patients taking other drugs that are associated with QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with tolterodine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [31112] [32901] [33925] [41231] Toremifene: (Minor) Use toremifene and short-acting beta-agonists together with caution due to the risk of QT prolongation. The manufacturer of toremifene recommends avoiding toremifene with other drugs that prolong the QT, if possible. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [28822] [32901] [33925] [41231] Torsemide: (Moderate) Loop diuretics may potentiate hypokalemia and ECG changes seen with beta agonists. Hypokalemia due to beta agonists appears to be dose related and is more likely with high dose therapy. Caution is advised when loop diuretics are coadministered with high doses of beta agonists; potassium levels may need to be monitored. [33925] [43675] [44979] Tranylcypromine: (Major) Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) due to their sympathomimetic effects. Weigh the risks of coadministration, and where possible, allow a washout period after discontinuation of the MAOI before instituring beta-agonist treatment or vice-versa. The cardiovascular effects of beta-agonists may be potentiated by concomitant use of MAOIs. Close observation for such effects is prudent, particularly if beta-agonists are administered within 2 weeks of stopping the MAOI. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate. [27957] [28309] [28467] [29656] [30438] [32901] [44979] [49951] [51022] [54633] [57710] Trazodone: (Minor) Trazodone can prolong the QT/QTc interval at therapeutic doses. In addition, there are post-marketing reports of torsade de pointes (TdP). Therefore, the manufacturer recommends avoiding trazodone in patients receiving other drugs that increase the QT interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Coadministration with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval may potentiate the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system. [28318] [32901] [33925] [38831] [41231] Triclabendazole: (Minor) Monitor ECGs in patients receiving triclabendazole with short-acting beta-agonists. Transient prolongation of the mean QTc interval was noted on the ECG recordings in dogs administered triclabendazole. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be lower with short-acting beta-agonists as compared to long-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [63962] Tricyclic antidepressants: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Trifluoperazine: (Minor) Trifluoperazine, a phenothiazine, is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with trifluoperazine include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28225] [28318] [28415] [32901] [33925] [41231] Trimipramine: (Minor) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) share pharmacologic properties similar to the Class IA antiarrhythmic agents and may prolong the QT interval, particularly in overdose or with higher-dose prescription therapy (elevated serum concentrations). Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation and TdP that should be used cautiously with TCAs include the beta-agonists. Beta agonists infrequently produce cardiovascular adverse effects, mostly with high doses or in the setting of beta-agonist-induced hypokalemia. [28318] [33925] [59321] Triptorelin: (Minor) Consider whether the benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (i.e., triptorelin) outweigh the potential risks of QT prolongation in patients receiving short-acting beta-agonists. Androgen deprivation therapy may prolong the QT/QTc interval. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [41231] [45411] Vandetanib: (Minor) If concomitant use of vandetanib with short-acting beta-agonists is necessary, monitor ECGs for QT prolongation and monitor electrolytes; correct hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and/or hypomagnesemia prior to vandetanib administration. An interruption of vandetanib therapy or dose reduction may be necessary for QT prolongation. Vandetanib can prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner; TdP and sudden death have been reported in patients receiving vandetanib. Beta-agonists may also be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] Vardenafil: (Minor) Coadministration of vardenafil and short-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Vardenafil has been associated with QT prolongation. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of vardenafil can produce an increase in QTc interval. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28216] [28318] [33925] [59321] Vemurafenib: (Minor) Vemurafenib has been associated with QT prolongation. If vemurafenib and another drug that is associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and torsade de pointes (TdP) must be coadministered, ECG monitoring is recommended; closely monitor the patient for QT interval prolongation. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with vemurafenib include the beta-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] [45335] Venlafaxine: (Minor) Venlafaxine administration is associated with a possible risk of QT prolongation; torsade de pointes (TdP) has been reported with post-marketing use. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously with venlafaxine include the beat-agonists. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28318] [32901] [33715] [33925] [41231] Voclosporin: (Minor) Concomitant use of voclosporin and short-acting beta-agonists may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Consider interventions to minimize the risk of progression to torsades de pointes (TdP), such as ECG monitoring and correcting electrolyte abnormalities, particularly in patients with additional risk factors for TdP. Voclosporin has been associated with QT prolongation at supratherapeutic doses. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses, when associated with hypokalemia, or when used with other drugs known to prolong the QT interval. This risk may be more clinically significant with long-acting beta-agonists as compared to short-acting beta-agonists. [28318] [33925] [66336] Voriconazole: (Minor) Voriconazole has been associated with QT prolongation and rare cases of torsade de pointes. Drugs with a possible risk for QT prolongation that should be used cautiously and with close monitoring with voriconazole include the beta-agonists. In addiition, voriconazole is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and may cause elevated concentrations of salmeterol or indacaterol, which are metabolized by CYP3A4. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. [28158] [28318] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] Vorinostat: (Minor) Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Beta-agonists should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with drugs known to prolong the QT interval, such as vorinostat, because the action of beta-agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated. [28318] [32789] [32901] [33925] [41231] [44979] Ziprasidone: (Minor) Use these drugs together with caution. Beta-agonists may be associated with adverse cardiovascular effects including tachycardia and QT interval prolongation, usually at higher doses and/or when associated with hypokalemia. Ziprasidone has been associated with a possible risk for QT prolongation and/or torsade de pointes (TdP). [28233] [28318] [33925]
Revision Date: 09/24/2021, 02:35:00 AM

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Monitoring Parameters

  • pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

US Drug Names

  • Accuneb
  • ProAir digihaler
  • Proair HFA
  • ProAir RespiClick
  • Proventil
  • Proventil HFA
  • Proventil Repetabs
  • Respirol
  • Ventolin
  • Ventolin HFA
  • Volmax
  • VoSpire ER
;