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Complications and Prognosis
Screening and Prevention
Infection control measures: these include isolation, source control, and transmission precautions r53
Supportive care: for all patients; in hospitalized patients, such care includes oxygenation and ventilation, conservative fluid support, and measures to prevent common complications (eg, pressure injury, stress ulceration, secondary infection) r24
Systemic corticosteroid therapy is suggested or recommended for most hospitalized patients with an oxygen requirement r24
Immunomodulators of other classes are used to diminish an excessive inflammatory response (eg, monoclonal antibodies against interleukin-6 receptors, such as tocilizumabr109 and sarilumabr110; Janus kinase inhibitors, such as baricitinibr111 and tofacitinibr112; monoclonal antibody vilobelimabr113 against complement activity)
Monoclonal antibodies with antiviral action (against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein)
Convalescent plasma continues to be investigated; only high-titer formulations have shown any benefitr144
Several medications with a mechanism of action that could potentially alter response to COVID-19 have been evaluated either for use in treatment and prevention, or for discontinuation to prevent harms r147
Other options not currently recommended under NIH, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and WHO guidelines (although some are still under study in clinical trials) r2r86r87
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